{1} Abbott, Jacob, author of the Corner Stone, his book rationalistic, almost Socinian, Ess., i., 72-95;
—— uses familiar speech unworthy of Christ, if Christ be God, ib., i., 86-91;
—— calls on Newman at Littlemore, 'met my strictures with a Christian forbearance,' ib., i., 100, 101.

Abelard (A.D. 1080-1142), reputed founder of scholasticism, H.S., iii., 195;
——— his wisdom not desursum, ib., iii., 201, nor pacifica, ib., iii., 198, 199, nor pudica, ib., iii., 200, 201;
—— man of one idea, Logic: opposed the reading of the Classics, ib., iii., 194, 197, 198
—— his last years, ib., 202.

Absolution, form of, a challenge to Evangelical clergymen, Apo., 87, 88, note;
stanzas on, V.V., 83, 84.

Achilli, Prepos., 207-9, 213, 214;
—— 'about the Achilli matter, when it first arose, I said, the devil is here,' S.N., 103.

Aibigenses, Ess., ii., 117, 118;
—— Waldenses, ib., ii., 118, 119;
—— Fraticelli, or spiritual Franciscans, ib., ii., 120, 121;
—— these three started the notion of the Pope being Antichrist, ib.

Alexandria, Church of, the missionary and polemical Church of antiquity, Ari., 41;
hence the exoteric character of its theological language, reserve in the communication of truth, ib., 42;
—— its grades of catechumenate, ib., 44, 45;
—— its allegorizing of Scripture, ib., 56-64;
—— some abuse of the same, ib., 60-4;
—— understatement of the divinity of Christ, ib., 93-7;
—— Alexandria not the source of Arianism, ib., 130, 131;
—— splendid position of the See of Alexandria, H.S., ii., 339, 340;
—— after Athanasius it begins to fall away, ib., ii., 340-3;
—— the Studium Generale, or University, founded by Ptolemy at Alexandria, Alexandrian Library and Museum, H.S., iii., 92-100.

Alfonso Liguori, St., his writings on Blessed Virgin, Apo., 194, 195;
took Newman more than a year to get over, ib., 196;
his doctrine of equivocation, from which Newman dissents, Apo., 273, 279, 350, 356, 360;
—— most scrupulous in his own practice, ib., 276-8;
—— the sentence 'that nothing in his works has been found worthy of censure' does not mean that they are free from mistake, Apo., 352-5;
—— his Glories of Mary, Diff., ii., 97, 98;
—— his view of predestination, Diff., ii., 336.

Allegorizing, Egyptian, Jewish, and later Greek habit, Ari., 57;
natural on high subjects, ib., 57-9;
—— important in the allegory not to lose the central core of literal truth, ib., 60-4.

Altar, primitive use of term, V.M., ii., 222, 223;
—— D.A., 207, note. {2}

Ambrose, St., parallel with St. Thomas Becket, H.S., i., 344, 345;
—— his conflict with Justina and Valentinian II., H.S., i. 345-63;
—— Diff., i., 55-7;
—— terminated by a great miracle, H.S., i., 364-9;
—— present state of his sacred remains, H.S., i., 443-5;
—— a different type of Saint from St. Basil, H.S., ii., 25, 28, 29;
—— baptizes St. Augustine, H.S., ii., 148, 159.

America, the Anglo-American Church, A.D. 1839, Ess., i., 314-79;
—— its wonderful growth, ib., i., 309, 310, 314-24;
—— excesses of sectarianism, ib., i. 325-7;
—— high teachings of American bishops on the Apostolical Succession, the Eucharist, prayers for the dead, ib., i., 338-41;
—— adverse extraneous influences, Socinianism, exclusion of Athanasian Creed, ib., i, 342-7;
—— the worldliness of a commercial community, ib., i., 348, 349;
—— drawing-room luxury in churches, no poor, ib., i., 350, 351;
—— neglect of Eucharist, ib., i., 351-3;
—— bishops named from their dioceses, ib., i., 354, 355;
—— Church government, system of, preponderance of laymen, ib., 358-63;
—— 'the advantages of our excellent Liturgy,' ib., i., 376-8;
—— the title, 'Protestant-Episcopal,' ib., i., 375.

Amort, his Ethica Christiana quoted, demonstrates the Catholic Religion on the argument of greater probability: 'I prefer to rely on that of an accumulation of various probabilities, sufficient for certitude,' G.A., 411, 412.

Angels, Newman's early imagination of, Apo., 2;
—— Michaelmas Day Sermon on angels as the power executive of the laws of physical nature, P.S., ii., 359-65;
—— Apo., 28;
—— S.N., 166;
—— see us, P.S., ii., 10, 11, 364, 365;
—— world full of angels, P.S., iv., 204-9;
—— Theophanies, or appearances of angels representing the Son of God, P.S., ii., 35, 36;
—— Dev., 136, 137;
—— V.M., ii., 112, note;
—— do not know evil, P.S., viii., 258;
—— ancient veneration of, Ath., ii., 7-12;
—— fuller revelation of angels in the Jewish dispensation, Mir., 359-62;
—— St. Justin on angel-worship, Dev., 411-5;
—— demoniacal possession, picture of, Call., 264-73, 349-51, 380-2;
—— nature does not attest the existence of angels, Mir., 50;
—— evil angels, said to be a Babylonian tenet, D.A., 211, 212;
—— theory of a middle race of spirits, neither in heaven nor in hell, e.g., John Bull, Apo., 28, 29;
—— the sin by which angels fell, pride, i.e., the rejection of the supernatural, S.N., 31, 32, 165;
—— what they are by nature, a second universe beside this, excellent in strength and purity, S.N., 162, 163;
—— nine orders of angels in three hierarchies, characteristics of each, ib., 164, 340;
—— limits to their natural knowledge, S.N., 162;
—— work no miracles independently of God, Mir., 49-52;
—— 'we have more real knowledge about the angels than about the brutes,' P.S., iv., 205-6;
—— their creation and fall, S.N., 292, 293;
—— angelic guidance, V.V., 73;
—— hymn to my guardian angel, 'my oldest friend, V.V., 300-2;
—— angel guardian bearing away the soul, V.V., 334-8;
—— God's living temple in the world of spirits, ib., 354;
—— howling of evil angels, 'how impotent they are,' V.V., 343-8.

Anglican Orders, Perceval on the Apostolic Succession and English Orders, Ess., ii., 1, 2;
—— 'trust that the question is now (A.D. 1840) settled once for all,' {3} ib., ii., 2;
—— sed contra, such Orders 'doubtful and untrustworthy,' Ess., ii., 76;
—— Swedish Orders, ib., ii., 79, 80;
—— heretical ordinations not certainly but only probably valid, ib., ii., 78, 81;
—— in the Sacraments the safer side to be taken, Ess., ii., 81;
—— not safe to omit the delivery of the sacred vessels, the rite acting as one whole which 'cannot be cut up into bits,' ib., ii., 82;
—— will the Pope in the plenitude of his power ever determine on Anglican Orders (A.D. 1871)? Ess., ii., 83;
—— earnestness and purity no substitute for validity, ib., ii., 84;
—— dreariness of antiquarian arguments, Ess., ii., 109;
—— 'urgency of visible facts,'—that 'Apostolical Succession is not an Anglican tradition,' Ess., ii., 109, 110,—that the Anglican Sacrament is 'without protective ritual and jealous guardianship, O bone custos!' ib.,—that there has been no rigid rule of baptism in the Anglican Church, ib., ii., 110, 111;
—— if our Sacraments have with them the Presence, we are part of the Church: if not, we are but performers, S.D., 354;
—— Ath., ii., 85;
—— sed contra, Diff., i., 387, 392;
—— Parker's consecration, V.M., i., 345, notes;
—— Macaulay's argument from length of chain of transmission, and its answer, so far as Catholics are concerned, Ess., ii., 84-9;
—— V.M., ii., 107, notes;
—— the mutilations of the Reformers 'did not touch life,' V.M., ii., 226;
—— sed contra, a concrete whole cannot be cut into bits, Ess., ii., 82, 83;
—— 'I must have St. Philip's gift, who saw the sacerdotal character on the forehead of a gaily-attired youngster, before I can of my own wit acquiesce in it' (Anglican episcopal succession), Apo., 341.

Animals, brute, a world mysterious as the world of angels, P.S., iv., 205, 206;
—— Mix., 272, 273;
—— cruelty to, P.S., vii., 136-8;
—— feel far less than men, because they cannot reflect on what they feel, Mix., 326-8;
—— may not some brute beasts be made organs of devils? H.S., ii., 107-9;
—— Call., 264, 265;
—— 'we have no duties toward the brute creation, there is no relation of justice between them and us, we are bound not to treat them ill, but they can claim nothing at our hands,' O.S., 79, 80; S.N., 141;
—— 'the Creator has placed them absolutely in our hands, we have no duties to them, as little sin except accidentally in taking a brute's life as in plucking a flower,' Prepos., 283;
—— St. Philip Neri's tenderness for, M.D., 152, 153;
—— 'cruelty to animals as if we did not love God their Maker; nay, wanton destruction of plants; we should destroy nothing without a reason,' S.N., 133;
—— their limitations, ib., 294;
—— have instinctive perception of an external world. G.A., 62.

Ante-Nicene Fathers, opinion of some that while Our Lord, as Word, was from eternity, He was not from eternity as Son, but as Son was generated in view of creation to follow, such generation being ere time began, yet not from eternity, Ari., 95, 416-22;
—— reluctance to condemn this opinion may possibly have led the Nicene Council to prefer the term 'consubstantial' to the otherwise preferable 'co-eternal,' Ath., ii., 228-34, 340;
—— Bishop Bull's contention that the Council of Nicæa, in anathematizing those who taught that our Lord 'was not before He was begotten,' wished to convey that in some {4} sense He was (as Word) before He was begotten (as Son), T.T., 58-61; Ari., 416-8;
—— argument against Bull, T.T., 61-70, 293, note;
—— Bull wrong in his contention that what is called the 'condescension' of the Son, taking creatures to be sons of God, was considered by Athanasius in any way to imply a new 'generation' of the Son, T.T., 70-7;
—— three Ante-Nicene doctrines, two of them true, the third false, gave a handle to Arianism, T.T., 166 sq.; Dev., 135;
—— passages of Ante-Nicene Fathers that sound like Semi-Arianism, yet may be interpreted on the principle of syncatabasis, T.T., 212-23;
—— temporal gennesis, restatement of the view of some Ante-Nicene Fathers that the Eternal Word became Son in view of creation, by a generation not exactly in time, still not from eternity, T.T., 227-36, 244, 245;
—— either creation from eternity, and the gennesis of the Son also; or creation had a beginning, and so had the gennesis of the Son; Origen for the former view, Tertullian for the latter, T.T., 232-4;
—— no Alexandrians hold the temporal gennesis of the Son, T.T., 237-41;
—— Ari., 422;
—— St. Justin at least not clear in affirming the generation of the Son from all eternity, T.T., 249-52;
—— St. Theophilus distinguishes the Endiathetic Word Eternal from the Prophoric Word, generated when God wished to create, T.T., 255-7;
—— the eternal generation of the Son asserted in the Council of Antioch (A.D. 272), T.T., 262, 263;
—— Hippolytus, praise of, T.T., 266-8;
—— seems incredible that he should be the author of the Elenchus Hæresum, ib., 268;
—— he says that without flesh and by Himself the Word was not a perfect Son, T.T., 272;
—— the Elenchus Hæresum not favourable to the eternal generation, T.T., 273-5;
—— Tertullian, decidedly sound on the general doctrine of the Trinity, still says, 'there was a time when the Son was not,' T.T., 275-81;
—— Lactantius in agreement with Tertullian on the temporal gennesis, T.T., 285;
—— he also writes, 'Christ being the Son of God from the beginning,' ib., 286;
—— St. Hilary tells us that He who was the Word from eternity, became the Son in order to creation, but this doctrine he unlearned in his banishment to the East, T.T., 68, 288-90;
—— Victorinus teaches that, when the world was to be created, the Word became the Son, ib., 295, 296;
—— Pope Dionysius to the contrary, ib., 296, 297;
—— the opinion at length classed, and duly, among heresies by St. Augustine, Ari., 422.

Antichrist, the Pope why taken for, V.M., i., 43, 44;
—— O.S.,141-4;
—— statement in Homilies, V.M., ii., 179, 185;
—— Trent bound the Roman Communion to Antichrist, V.M., ii., 206, note, 208, note;
—— Apo., 52;
—— if the Bishop of Rome be Antichrist, then we owe our conversion to Antichrist, and our orders are devil's orders: V.M., ii., 219;
—— Apocalyptic language, taken literally or figuratively, hard of application to Papal Rome, ib., ii., 221, 222;
—— name freely applied in early centuries, Ath., ii., 12-5;
—— the palmary argument of the Reformers, without which they could never have made head, was that Rome is Antichrist, Ess., i., 218: Ess., ii., 16, 17, 131-3: L.G., 278, 279: Prepos., 129, 224: Apo., 55;
—— if Rome is Antichrist, so is England, Ess., {5} ii., 114, 115, 166-9;
—— notion of the Pope being Antichrist started by Aibigenses, Waldenses, and Fraticelli, ib., ii., 117-21;
—— Abbot Joachim and Olivi, ib., ii., 121-3, 126;
—— prophecy not to be interpreted but by those who have some portion of the spirit which inspired the prophecy itself, Ess., ii., 129;
—— we do not behave as though we really believed the Pope to be Antichrist and Rome Babylon, Ess., ii., 146-50;
—— 'Rome must not monopolize these titles,' we Anglicans should claim to share them, ib., ii., 151, 152;
—— the Church Antichrist, if she is not a Vice-Christ, Ess., ii., 170-4;
—— reasons for believing that he is not yet come, D.A., 48-51, Ess., ii., 113;
—— 'what withholdeth' (2 Thess. ii., 6, 7), 'the present framework of society as representative of Roman powers,' D.A., 49-51;
—— a decaying framework, D.A., 103;
—— continual effort to manifest Antichrist, D.A., 50, 51;
—— one individual man, D.A., 51-7
—— born of an Apostasy: his shadows and forerunners, D.A., 57-9;
—— S.N., 30, 31;
—— his religion, D.A., 64-8;
—— parallel in first French Revolution, D.A., 69, 70;
—— his mystic number (Rev. xiii., 18), ib., 73;
—— summary of prophecies concerning him, D.A., 74;
—— pagan Rome the city of Antichrist, D.A., 77-87, 91;
—— Rome saved from destruction by her Christianity, D.A., 87-90;
—— Rome a type, like Babylon, D.A., 90;
—— four characteristics of his persecution, D.A., 98, 99;
—— Turks as Antichrist, H.S., i., 105;
—— must look like Christ, otherwise he would not be a counterfeit; but if Antichrist like Christ, Christ like Antichrist, O.S., 141-4; Prepos., 224;
—— Antichrist not the Church of Rome, but the spirit of the old pagan city, still alive and corrupting the Church there (1838), Apo., 121;
—— Prophecies relating to Antichrist, by Dr. Todd, reviewed, Ess., ii., 112 sq.

Antioch, Church of, gave birth to Arianism, Ari., 2-9, 23, 24, 403; Dev., 285;
—— not Alexandria, Ari., 39, 40, 130-2;
—— rival successions of Catholic bishops, Ari., 360-5, 389, 390, 450; H.S., ii., 41;
—— more in touch with the world than Alexandria, T.T., 145;
—— Antiochene (Syrian) school of exegesis, fertile in heresy, Dev., 285-91;
—— hence Nestorianism spread to Persia, patriarchate of Babylon, communion extending from Jerusalem to China, Dev., 291-7;
—— wanting in clear perception of the place of the Blessed Virgin in the Gospel, Diff., ii., 147, 148.

Antiquity, otherwise called the Fathers, period of the Church undivided, incorrupt, and perhaps infallible, V.M., i., 37, 38, 203, 207, 209;
—— of authority in religious questions, ib., i., 49, 50;
—— individual Fathers not always safe guides, ib., i., 52, 56, 57, notes;
—— Rome substitutes Church for Antiquity, V.M., i., 49, 57;
—— 'ours is Antiquity, theirs the existing Church,' V.M., i., 70;
—— sed contra, no, not Antiquity, but Ussher, Taylor, and Stillingfleet, ib., note; pref., p. xxxiv.; Apo., 203, 205;
—— that 'venturesome Church' usurps the place of the Fathers, V.M., i., 70;
—— Romanists are 'interpreting what is obscure in Antiquity, purifying what is alloyed, correcting what is amiss, harmonizing what is various,' ib., i., 68, 69, 71;
—— Antiquity decides what {6} is in Scripture, V.M., i., 267-72;
—— sed contra, ib., notes;
—— proves the sufficiency of Scripture, V.M., i., 284, 310, 313-20, 323-27;
—— sed contra, ib., 328-30, note;
—— 'the ancient Church cannot speak for herself,' Ess., i., 228;
—— superficial reading of the Fathers, Ess., i., 226-33; Diff., i., 393;
—— 'to read a particular Father to advantage, we must divest ourselves of modern prejudices, and study theology,' Ess., i., 233;
—— 'they who look to Antiquity do not believe in the possibility of any substantial increase of religious knowledge, but the Romanist believes in a standing organ of Revelation, like the series of Jewish prophets,' Ess., i., 159;
—— sed contra, Diff., ii., 327, 328;
—— Antiquity, not antiquarian fanaticism, we must be churchmen of our own era, Ess., i., 285-8, note, 291;
—— the Fathers not our confessors or casuists, differences in their direction, Ess., ii., 371, note;
—— 'the Fathers wrote for contemporaries, not for a degenerate people and a disunited Church,' Mir., 226 ,227;
—— caution in applying the language of the Fathers concerning schism to our own times: forms are transitory, principles eternal: the Church of the day but an accidental development of the invisible and unchangeable: at least all this might be said, D.A., 10-3;
—— sed contra, parable of the courtier of Herod, ib., 14, 15;
—— antiquity versus political expedience, D.A., 30, 31;
—— the Fathers honest informants on doctrine held by all Christians, less available as interpreters of prophecy, D.A., 45, 46;
—— we believe, mainly, because the Church of the fourth and fifth centuries unanimously believed, D.A., 236-8;
—— no certain guide (an objection), D.A., 202, 203;
—— Primitive Christianity, H.S., i., 339-446;
—— the Fathers primarily witnesses, not authorities, H.S., i., 381, 385, 386; Diff., ii., 137, 138;
—— Antiquity subordinate to the theological tradition of the Church, must not set up for itself, Idea, 452;
—— reliance of Oxford Movement on Anglican Divines, and, beyond them, on the Fathers, Diff., i., 137-49;
—— Library of the Fathers, started as Anti-Protestant, found to favour Rome, ib., 143-50; Apo., 56;
—— 'the Fathers would protect Romanists as well as extinguish Dissenters,' Diff., i., 151;
—— if the Roman Church varies from the Fathers in accidentals, Protestants contradict them in essentials, Diff., i., 364;
—— the Fathers the intellectual cause of Newman's conversion, Diff., i., 367-73;
—— in reading Antiquity, misled by Anglican divines, Apo., 203, 205;
—— writing before the Church had spoken, the Fathers 'did not in their expressions do justice to their own real meaning,' M.D., 118, 119;
—— Antiquity realized in Rome, 'she was ancient Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople,' Apo., 197, 198;
—— the Greek Fathers, V.V., 102, 103;
—— Newman's feelings towards the Fathers before and after he became a Catholic, Diff., ii., 3;
—— 'the Fathers made me a Catholic,' ib., ii., 24;
—— 'to imbibe into the intellect the Ancient Church as a fact, is either to be a Catholic or an infidel,' Diff., i., 393

Antony, St. (A.D. 251-356), in conflict, in calm, H.S., ii., 99-126;
—— his first solitude, ib., ii., 99-103;
—— among the tombs, conflict with evil spirits, makes for the desert, ib., ii., 103-5;
—— his divine peace, {7} cheerfulness, intrepidity, and pleasing appearance, coming forth as from some shrine, fully perfect in mysteries, and instinct with God, ib., ii., 111, 116, 117, 119, 120;
—— his horror of Arianism, ib., 123;
—— his death, ib., 123, 124; V.V., 347, 348.

Apollinaris, denied that our Lord had any intellectual soul, T.T., 303, 304;
—— gave as a reason that He had no human personality, ib., 307-11;
—— argued that a human intellect was unnecessary to the Word, ib., 312;
—— that such intellect was essentially sinful, T.T., 313, 314;
—— thus the Word became the very soul of a human body, ib., 317;
—— Apollinaris inconsistent with himself, ib., 320;
—— twenty-four propositions of his, T.T., 321, 322;
—— his heresy tended to Docetism, Sabellianism, Arianism, ib., 325-7;
—— brief sketch of his history, H.S., i., 392-7.

Apollonius of Tyana, H.S., i., 305-31;
—— chronology, ib., i., 305, 308, note;
—— his extant Letters, ib., i., 316, note;
—— his Life by Philostratus, H.S., i., 305;
—— untrustworthy, ib., i., 317, 328-31;
—— set up by Hierocles and others as a rival to Christ, ib., i., 305, 306;
—— a Pythagorean, H.S., i., 307;
—— his travels, ib., i., 308-15;
—— relations with Nero, Vespasian, Domitian, ib., i., 310-5;
—— prodigies ascribed to him, H.S., i., 319-22;
—— which he himself attributed to a fuller insight into nature, ib., i., 323-6;
—— really an extraordinary character, ib., i., 317;
—— parallelisms of Philocharis's narrative with the New Testament, H.S., i., 328, 329.

Apologia pro Vita Sua, circumstances of its writing, Kingsley's poisoning of the wells, Apo., pref., pp. vi.-xxvii.

Apostles, Christ's substitutes and representatives as Prophet, Priest, King, P.S., ii., 301-4;
—— their powers, ordinary and extraordinary, ib., ii., 306, 308;
—— Apostolical Succession, P.S., ii., 305-18; P.S., iii., 247, 248; P.S., vii., 238-40;
—— Apostles understood not the Divinity of Christ till the Holy Ghost descended, P.S., iv., 256;
—— sole channels of grace and sole governors of all Christian people, P.S., vi., 196-200;
—— St. Matthias an Apostle never under age, P.S., vii., 103, 104;
—— answer to Macaulay's argument from probabilities against the Apostolical Succession, Ess., ii., 86-9;
—— does the Church now know more than the Apostles knew? Ess., ii., 12-4;
—— Apostolical Succession not an Anglican tradition, ib., ii., 110;
—— the Succession 'risked' in 1689, H.S., iii., 378, note;
—— the Apostolate continued in the Papacy, L.G., 394;
—— whatever an Apostle said, his converts were bound to believe, Mix., 196, 197;
—— 'argued not, but preached,' V.V., 167;
—— 'four fishermen, one petty tax collector, two husbandmen, and another said to have been a market gardener,' G.A., 467;
—— how the Apostles preached, and how they prevailed, Jfc., 268-73.

Apostolical Canons, eighty-five, the first fifty of superior authority, H.S., i., 422;
—— taken to be on the whole previous to A.D. 325, ib., 421, 422;
—— of some thirty or forty canons gathered from the Fathers all are in this Collection, ib., 425;
—— though this Collection or Edition may have been done by Arians, the main contents seem to be genuine, and to be a fair portrait of Primitive Christianity, ib., 423-38. {8}

Architecture, 'type of our state of mind' (1839), 'the lines of our buildings do not flow on,' Ess., i., 336;
—— growing attention to church architecture (A.D. 1842) right in itself, but other things to be done first, S.D., 393;
—— Gothic, 'endowed with a profound and a commanding beauty, which probably the Church will not see surpassed till it attain to the Celestial City,' Idea, 82;
—— danger of this divine gift being used as an end rather than a means, ib.;
—— Gothic could not exist till vaulting was perfected: not a simple style; the one true child of Christianity; give Gothic an ascendancy but be respectful to classical, L.G., 285;
—— two things in the basilica which Gothic cannot show, ib., 306;
—— churches in Rome do not affect one like the Gothic, L.G., 306;
—— religious architecture to be devotional and costly, S.N., 211.

Argument, love of, 'indulged only in a case in which we have no fears,' e.g., religious subjects, P.S., vi., 331;
—— a bar to action, some things, nay the greatest, must be taken for granted, else we fritter away life, ib., vi., 336;
—— 'the highest reason is not to reason by rules of argument, but in a natural way,' ib., vi., 341;
—— one argument for religion open to the unlearned, P.S., viii., 112;
—— argument from Design possibly unsound, but not the argument from Order, U.S., 70, note; G.A., 72;
—— every argument assumes something incapable of proof, U.S., 213, 214;
—— 'they may argue badly, but they reason well; that is, their professed grounds are no sufficient measures of their real ones. Whether we consider processes of faith or other exercise of Reason, men advance on grounds which they do not, or cannot, produce, or if they could, yet could not prove to be true, on latent or antecedent grounds which they take for granted' [this passage is the embryo of the Grammar of Assent], U.S., 212, 213, 257;
—— 'intricate assemblage of considerations, which really lead to judgment, attenuated or mutilated into a major and a minor premise,' U.S., 230; G.A., 268;
—— argument, or explicit reason, compatible with faith, yet not its foundation, U.S., 262;
—— in every disputation the advantage is with the assailant, as such, why, Ari., 26, 27;
—— dialectic exercises dangerous to faith, ib., 30-5;
—— argumentum ad hominem, a kill-or-cure remedy, D.A., 112-4;
—— faith not afraid of argument; yet if a man does nothing more than argue, he will either not attain truth or grasp it but feebly, D.A., 201;
—— 'no one spot in the territory of theology but has been the scene of a battle,' D.A., 208, note;
—— history, ethics, and religion not investigable by Baconian methods, Dev., 115-9;
—— argument from silence fallacious, Dev., 115-9; Idea, 94, 95;
—— 'logic is brought in to arrange what no science was employed in gaining,' Dev., 190;
—— 'first shoot round corners, and you may not despair of converting by a syllogism,' D.A., 294; G.A., 425;
—— no argument so strong but the wilful ingenuity of man is able to evade it, O.S., 139;
—— canons of disputation, Prepos., pref., xi., 202;
—— for argument the people want something to impress the imagination, ib., 224;
—— Newman's dislike of paper logic, Apo., 169; G.A., 302, 303;
—— 'brothers, spare reasoning, the Apostles {9} argued not but preached,' V.V., 167;
—— 'theology both uses logic and baffles it,' but logic 'blunders on,' will not stop for mystery, and so loses the truth, Diff., ii., 81, 82;
—— compatibility of assenting and yet proving, G.A., 189-93;
—— verbal argumentation, or logic, G.A., 263;
—— verbal argumentation ultimately syllogistic, ib., 287, note;
—— 'the world cannot be attenuated into a logical formula,' G.A., 268; U.S., 230;
—— 'logic does not really prove,' what it does do, G.A., 271;
—— real reasoning in concrete matters, implicit, not directly conscious, goes upon a mass of probabilities, G.A., 292;
—— as a polygon, inscribed in a circle, by multiplication of its sides tends to become that circle, yet never actually does become it, so by a multitude of probable premises the practised mind divines that a conclusion is inevitable, which yet is never actually proved to the full, G.A., 320, 321, 359;
—— illustrations of this, α. proof of the laws of motion in Wood's Mechanics, ib., 322, 323; β. proof of a murder by circumstantial evidence, ib., 324-7; γ. proof of authorship of anonymous publication, ib., 328, 329;
—— the determination in such cases is the art of the Illative Sense, G.A., 345, sq.;
—— trifles on which men disagree,—which way do the great letters look? G.A., 374,—what is the last year of the century? ib., 375;
—— 'the fact of revelation is in itself demonstrably true, but it is not true irresistibly; else, how comes it to be resisted?' G.A., 410;
—— 'we are bound to seek truth by modes of proof, which, when reduced to the shape of formal propositions, fail to satisfy the requisitions of science,' G.A., 412;
—— U.S., 212, 213.

Arianism, condemned in the first General Council, A.D. 325, not ejected from the Church till the second, A.D. 381, Ari., 1;
—— sprang from Antioch, not Alexandria, ib., 2-9, 23, 24, 130-2, 403;
—— vigour and success of, Ari., 39;
—— connexion with Aristotelic disputations, ib., 29-35;
—— profanity of, ib., 139-41, 451, 452, Ath., ii., 22, 23;
—— its relations to the principal errors of its time, Ari., 202-5;
—— turned to the belittling of Christ the honours bestowed on our human nature in Christ, ib., 227, 228;
—— came to this in the end, that either there are two Gods or Christ is not God, Ari., 230-2;
—— Arian leaders, Eusebius of Nicomedia, ib., 260, 261; Ath., i., 3, 4: ii., 29; Eusebius of Cæsarea, Ari., 261-4; Ath., i., 15, 55-9, 80, 86; Ath., ii., 28, 97-106; Acacius of Cæsarea, Ari., 275, 304, 307, 346; Ath., ii., 30; George of Laodicea, Ari., 275, 276, 342; Leontius of Antioch, ib., 276, 277; Eudoxius of Antioch, ib., 277, 341; Ath., ii., 31, 32; Valens of Mursa, ib., 30, 31; Ari., 278; his recantation, ib., 291: his relapse, ib., 312;
—— doctrine a secondary consideration with the Arians, Ari., 259, 260, 274, 296;
—— eject bishops and occupy their sees, Constantinople, Adrianople, Ancyra, Sirmium, ib., 311-4;
—— George the Cappadocian, Ath., ii., 29, 30;
—— Eustathius of Sebaste, H.S., ii., 20;
—— Ultra-Arians, called Anomœans, Ari., 336; their founders, Aetius and Eunomius, ib., 337-40, 351, 352; Ath., i., 69; Ath., ii., 33, 34;
—— Semi-Arians, distinct from Eusebian or Court party, Ari., 295-7, 303; their {10} doctrine, homœüsion, ib., 297-9, 306: Ath., i., 134, 148, 149; Ath., ii., 282-6;
—— their leaders, Basil of Ancyra and Mark of Arethusa, Ari., 300-2; Ath., ii., 33; good men among them, ib., i., 134; Ari., 299-303;
—— Plato made Semi-Arians and Aristotle Arians, Ari., 335, note; T.T., 207;
—— Semi-Asians finally absorbed into orthodoxy, Ari., 377-9; T.T., 84;
—— list of Councils dealing with Arianism, Ari., 446-51, 469-73;
—— how the heresy succeeded so well, T.T., 142-8, 164;
—— Arian arguments,—that the word 'substance' is not in Scripture, Ath., i., 14, 40: that not always Father, always Son, ib., 18, 19: that the Son is called 'only-begotten,' because He alone was created by the Father, and all things else through Him, ib., 20: or because He alone partakes the Father, and all other things partake the Son, Ath., i., 24: that sonship is a human conception, unworthy of a sacred truth, ib., 25, 26: that God speaketh many words, not one Word, ib., 32, 33: that before the Son was in act, He was in virtue, Ath., i., 59, note: that the Son was created before time, before the ages, but still created, Ath., i., 98, note, 103, note, 167, note, 173: that He is subordinate to the Father, ib., 110, 115, even Catholic writers assigning a certain 'ministration' to the Son, Ath., ii., 217-9, 450: that if He is eternally co-existent with the Father, He is not Son but Brother, Ath., i., 172: that the Son is begotten by the Father at His will and pleasure, Ath., i., 113, 192-204: the above phrase has the support of early Fathers, discussion of it, Ath., ii., 385-95: that God is ingenerate, but the Son is not ingenerate, therefore the Son is not God, discussion of this, Ath., i., 49-54, 103, 104, 111, 113, 141, 142, 204-10; ii., 347-9;
—— texts alleged by Arians,—α. Prov. viii., 22, 'the Lord created me,' Ath., i., 29, 30, 46, 306-56: Ath., ii., 381: the dispute grew out of a wrong reading, created for possessed, Ath., ii., 270: β. Col. i., 15, 'first-born of all creation,' Ath., i., 331, note: Christ is five times in Scripture called 'first-born,' a word of office, not of nature, Ath., ii., 459: γ. Heb. iii., 2, 'faithful to him that made him,' Ath., i., 258-63: other texts, ib., i., 357-428; Ath., ii. 266-81;
—— Arians likened to chameleons, Ath., i., 6, 12; ii., 71;
—— three divisions of the Arian party, Ath., i., 62; ii., 28, 47;
—— Anomœans, or Exucontians, extreme Arians, ib., i., 121; ii. 406;
—— Arianism dependent on the use of force, Ath., ii. 124;
—— Ariomanites, ib., ii. 367-9;
—— 'exact image' became the symbol of Semi-Arianism, ib., ii., 371-3;
—— summary of Arian tenets, Ath., ii., 34-43; T.T., 57, 58, 149;
—— Semi-Arian tenets, Ath., ii., 102; T.T., 165;
—— Asterius, foremost writer on the Arian side, on its start, Ath., i., 87-90, Ath., ii., 27, 48-50;
—— 'the Arians went ahead with logic, and so lost the truth,' Diff., ii., 81;
—— impatient of mystery, Ath., ii., 44;
—— not a popular heresy, T.T., 144;
—— later Arians denied that our Lord had any human soul, T.T., 304;
—— history of Arianism in short, Ess., i., 123, 124;
—— Semi-Arians considered by the Fathers to be orthodox at bottom, Ess., ii., 59-62;
—— the Vandals Arianized, Arian King Hunneric, his persecution, {11} Mir., 369-72;
—— Arian Goths, Dev., 274-8;
—— Arianism in France for eighty years, in Spain for a hundred and eighty, in Africa and Italy for about a hundred, Dev., 278;
—— Arianism at Milan, H.S., i., 344-6;
—— compendium of Arian theology, Ari., 205-11;
—— 'the characteristic of Arianism in all its shapes was the absolute separation of "Father from Son,"' Ath., ii., 436. 

Aristotle, defects of his Magnanimous Man, U.S., 28, 29;
—— on human responsibility, ib., 140, 141;
—— his logic adapted to detect error rather than to discover truth, Ari., 29;
—— called the Bishop of the Arians, Ari., 31, 335, note; Ess., ii., 42;
—— his Poetics, Ess., i., 1, 4, 7, 8, 9;
—— 'oracle of nature and of truth': 'in many matters, to think correctly is to think like Aristotle,' Idea, 109, 110;
—— made by St. Thomas 'a hewer of wood and drawer of water to the Church,' 'a strong slave,' Idea, 470;
—— his doctrine of phronesis, G.A., 353-8;
—— quoted on the need of a special preparation of mind for each department of enquiry, G.A., 414, 415. 

Arius, personal appearance and character, why called the Sotadean, Ath., ii., 17-20; Ath., i., 156, 159;
—— starts his heresy, Ari., 28, 39, 237-40: Diff., i., 379, 380;
—— his profanities, Ari., 139, 140, 215, 216, 451, 452;
—— his heresy and its condemnation at Nicæa, Ari., 202, 205-11, 395; Ath., i., 4, 5;
—— his letters to Eusebius of Nicomedia and to Alexander of Alexandria, Ari., 211-5;
—— his arguments unscriptural, Ari., 219-21;
—— repudiated mystery, ib., 221;
—— submits, is pardoned, banished, Ari., 256;
—— his subsequent history and death, a judgment on him, Ari., 266-70; Ath., ii., 53, 54; Mir., 327-30, and presumably a miracle, ib., 330, 331;
—— parallel of Ananias and Sapphira, ib., 333;
—— his blasphemies, Ath., i., 82-4, 159-61.

Arminians, their doctrine of justification by obedience, somewhat to the neglect of Sacraments, Jfc., 182-4.

Arnold, Dr., a high-minded liberal, his promotion hindered by the Oxford movement, Diff., i., 11;
—— his opinion of Newman, ib., i., 40;
—— 'admirable in his earnestness,' 'died nobly,' ib., 92;
—— 'is he a Christian?' Apo., 33, 34;
—— his pupils invested the Liberal Party at Oxford with 'an elevation of character which claimed the respect even of its opponents,' Apo., 292;
—— his saying on the text, 'I spoke of thy testimonies even before kings,' Diff., ii., 197;
—— 'we are sorrowfully conscious that we do not agree with Dr. Arnold,' Ess., ii., 113.

Assent (cf. Life by Ward, II., 245, 246, 278), 'the absolute acceptance of a proposition without any condition,' G.A., 13;
—— assent has no degrees, ib., 35, 37, 38;
—— why it seems to have degrees, ib., 35, 37;
—— expressed by an assertion, something quite different from a conclusion, which is the expression of an inference, ib., 4, 5;
—— doubt is really an assent, when it amounts to the deliberate recognition of a thesis as being uncertain, G.A., 7, 8, 208, 209;
—— can we assent to what we do not understand? ib., 8, 15, 16, 46, 150;
—— to assent, it is enough to apprehend the predicate, ib., 14, 15;
—— assent, unconditional, akin to real apprehension, ib., 12;
—— real assent to the Crucifixion widely different from the notional acceptance of it, G.A., {12} 38;
—— notional assent seems like inference, ib., 39;
—— inverse relation between assent and inference, ib., 40, 41;
—— five heads of notional assents, G.A., 42;
—— without experience, assent is not real, ib., 46;
—— 'God's Providence is nearly the only doctrine held with a real assent by the mass of religious Englishmen,' G.A., 55-7;
—— real assents, fruit of meditation, ib., 79: no warrant for the existence of their objects, G.A., 80-2—do not necessarily imply action, ib., 82, 83, 89, 90—their personal character, ib., 83—their power, ib., 88;
—— contrast of real assent, or belief, with inference, ib., 90;
—— to give a real assent to a dogma is an act of religion, to give a notional is a theological act, G.A., 98, 119, 120;
—— how assent to the being of a God may be real, ib., 102, 105-19;
—— assent to doctrine of Holy Trinity, how real, how notional, G.A., 126-40;
—— implicit assent, real and operative, to the word of an infallible Church stands instead of many abstruse proportions, G.A., 150-3;
—— how can assent be unconditional, seeing that inference, on which it rests, is conditional? G.A., 157, 158, 259;
—— Locke and others cut the knot by affirming that not all assents are unconditional, that there are degrees of assent, that 'absolute assent has no legitimate exercise except as ratifying acts of intuition or demonstration, but as to reasonings in concrete matters, they are never more than probabilities, and the probability in each conclusion is the measure of our assent to that conclusion,' G.A., 159-64; Dev., 327-30; U.S., 184, n. 16, 187-93;—if so, assent and inference are not two things, but one, G.A., 165, 166; 'I cannot be taken to mean as if assent did not always imply grounds in reason, implicit, if not explicit, or could be rightly given without sufficient grounds; indeed I doubt if assent is ever given without some preliminary which stands for a reason,' G.A., 171, 172;
—— still assent may stand when the inference on which it was originally elicited has been forgotten, or may be refused in presence of convincing arguments, ib., 167-71;
—— in cases in which we are said to assent a little and not much, usually we do not assent at all, ib., 173-6, 196, 200;
—— 'as well talk of degrees of truth as of degrees of assent,' G.A., 174;
—— instances of assent, short of intuition and demonstration, yet unconditional, ib., 177-81;
—— some conversational expressions explained, ib., 181-4;
—— 'firm and weak assent,' 'growth of belief,' explained as referring not to the assent itself, but to its circumstances and concomitants, G.A., 184-6;
—— assent of faith not here in discussion, ib., 186, 187;
—— 'our unconsciousness of those innumerable acts of assent which we are incessantly making,' ib., 188, 189;
—— 'complex assent' is 'an assent to an assent, or what is commonly called a conviction,' G.A., 189, 194;
—— no incompatibility between assenting and yet proving, ib., 189, 190, 193;
—— inquiry inconsistent with assent, ib., 191; L.G., 203, 204;
—— 'assent (to a proposition objectively true) may be called a perception, the conviction a certitude, the proposition or truth a certainty, and to assent to it is to know,' G.A., 196;
—— complex assent always notional, ib., 214-6;
—— 'we are bound in conscience to seek {13} truth and to look for certainty by modes of proof, which, when reduced to the shape of formal propositions, fail to satisfy the severe requisitions of science,' G.A., 412;
—— author's summary of the Grammar of Assent, G.A., 495, 496; Apo., 20, 21; U.S., 212, n. 16.

Athanasius, St., his resistance to additions to the Creed, V.M., i., 228-31, 252, 253;
—— used economy of truth, Ari., 70, 71;
—— present as deacon at Nicæa, ib., 250, 251;
—— condemned in Councils and banished to Gaul, Ari., 282-4;
—— acquitted at Rome, ib., 285;
—— sits in Council of Sardica, ib., 289;
—— returns to Alexandria, ib., 290;
—— seems to Constantius too great for a subject, Ari., 310;
—— condemned at Councils of Arles and Milan, ib., 354-7;
—— driven out of Alexandria, and replaced by George of Cappadocia, atrocities on the occasion, ib., 326-34;
—— his restoration, ib., 353, 354;
—— his moderation with Semi-Arians, Ari., 356-60; Ath., ii., 52, 53, 56, 282, 285, 363;
—— 'the most modest as well as the most authoritative of teachers,' Ath., ii., 56, 57;
—— his style, ib., 58, 59;
—— his last days and death, Ari., 373-6;
—— takes the traditional sense of Scripture for apostolic and decisive, Ath., ii., 250;
—— thinks Scripture sufficient against Arianism, ib., 261;
—— anti-Nestorian, ib., 326-30;
—— his deep sense of the authority of tradition, Ath., ii., 51, 52;
—— his arguments against Arianism,—that the interposition of a created Son as a mediator in creation leads to a regressus in infinitum, Ath., i., 22; that if the Son be simply the first of creatures, He differs from them in kind no more than Adam from other men, ib., 23, 24; that as man creates in one way and God in another, so of human and divine generation, ib., 26, 27; that analogy does not involve likeness, Ath., i., 26; that the Word and Wisdom being the Son, if the Word and Wisdom had a beginning, God was once wordless and wisdomless, ib., 31, 32; that the Word is 'from God,' not as we are, but 'from the substance of God,' Ath., i., 36, 37; not 'like Him,' but of the same substance, ib., 38, 39; Ath., ii., 432-7; that if He is a Son, then not a creature; but if a creature, then not a Son, Ath., i., 127; that Arians do not really admit Christ to be the Son of God, but only figuratively, ib., i., 173; that on Arian showing there is no Eternal Trinity, ib., i., 176, 177; that it is illogical of Arians to insist on the relationship of son to father as involving a beginning of being, and to be silent about it as involving a sameness of nature, Ath., i., 188;
—— what is called his Fourth Oration against the Arians is really against Marcellus of Ancyra, whose name is not mentioned because Athanasius had some personal regard for him, T.T., 7-35; career of Marcellus, ib., 18-20; Ath., ii., 196-8; heads of his heresies, ib., ii., 198-200; T.T., 21-9; Athanasian confutation of the same, T.T., 30-3;
—— Athanasius dogmatic with little use of dogmatic terms, ib., 339, 340;
—— his life of St. Antony substantially genuine, H.S., ii., 97;
—— Athanasius, the first great teacher of the Incarnation, laid the foundation on which devotion to the Blessed Virgin was to rest, Diff., ii., 87, 88; no proof that he had himself any special devotion to her, ib., {14} 88, 105;
—— 'has impressed an image on the Church, which, through God's mercy, shall not be effaced while time lasts,' U.S., 97.

Atheist, hard to convince, P.S., vi., 335-9;
—— is atheism philosophically consistent with the phenomena of the physical world? U.S., 194, with note; not at least with such phenomena as explained by universal tradition, Ari., 151, 152;
—— revelation clears up doubts about the existence of God as independent of nature, otherwise we are left unsatisfied whether the life of all things be a mere Anima Mundi, Ari., 184, 185, D.A., 302;
—— 'godless' (Eph. ii., 52), not in the sense of disowning God, but of being disowned by Him, Ath., ii., 354;
—— miracle no argument to an atheist, Mir., 11; U.S., 196;
—— study of Nature, away from religious feeling, leads the mind in fact to acquiesce in Atheism, D.A., 300;
—— sed contra, 'this is too absolute,' ib., 300, note;
—— 'no medium, in true philosophy, between Atheism and Catholicity,' Apo., 198; G.A., 495-501; Mix., 260, 261; S.N., 325;
—— 'but two alternatives, the way to Rome and the way to Atheism; Anglicanism is the half-way house on the one side, and Liberalism the half-way house on the other,' Apo., 204;
—— the Atheist's progress, G.A., 246, 247.

Athens, a prototype of England, D.A., 327-31;
—— Athens as a University, H.S., iii., 18-23, 33-46;
—— philosophical democracy of Athens, as described by Pericles, contrariwise to Rome, the absence of rule, the action of personality, H.S., iii., 81-8.

Atonement, doctrine of, P.S., vi., 79; U.S., 118, 119; not appropriated merely by faith, without pain and self-denial, Jfc., 174, 175;
—— Christ atoned in His own Person, He justifies through His Spirit; 'one Atonement, ten thousand justifications,' ib., 205, 206;
—— doctrine of Atonement (in Hebrews) not an economy, Ari., 78;
—— Athanasius on the Atonement, Ath., ii., 60-2;
—— vain without Resurrection, Ess., i., 247, 248;
—— a garbled version of the Atonement, ib., 251, 252;
—— after all our explanations the mystery remains, 'that the Innocent suffered for the guilty,' Ess., i., 66-8;
—— impossible to hold the Atonement without the Incarnation, ib., i., 367;
—— a correlative of eternal punishment, Dev., 107;
—— gratuitous, abundant, Mix, 306-8;
—— perpetual, M.D., 560, 561;
—— felt need of, G.A., 393;
—— vicarious satisfaction available only in the intermediate season of probation, ib., 394, 395, 405, 406.

Augustine, St., Predestinarianism and Purgatory, P.S., ii., 323; V.M., i., 171; V.M., ii, 110;
—— contrasted with Luther, Jfc., 58, 59;
—— laid an unprecedented stress on predestination, ib., 189;
—— his theology 'may be called a second edition of the Catholic Tradition,' Ess., i., 287;
—— last bishop of Hippo, his labours lost for his own Africa, ib., i., 293;
—— sets the Church's judgment above that of the Pope, Ess., ii, 45, 46;
—— Augustine and the Donatist Tichonius, his rival bishop at Hippo, ib., ii., 49, 50;
—— appealed to Donatists individually, not through their bishops, Dev., 270-2;
—— his testimony to the miracle of SS. Gervase and Protase, H.S., i., 368, 369;
—— his birth, the errors of his youth, his unhappiness, H.S., ii., 142-6; {15}
—— St. Augustine and Byron, ib., ii., 144;
—— his friend who died young, ib., ii., 146, 147;
—— hears St. Ambrose at Milan, ultimately baptized by him, H.S., ii., 148, 159;
—— his hesitations, details of his conversion, his mother Monica, ib., ii., 149-58; Mix., 53-5: O.S., 1-4;
—— priest, bishop, founder of a religious and clerical community, H.S., ii., 160-2;
—— Vandal invasion of Africa, ib., ii., 128, 129;
—— advises a brother bishop to stay by his flock, ib., ii., 134, 138;
—— siege of Hippo, Augustine's death, H.S., ii., 139, 140;
—— his letter on prayer to Proba, ib., ii., 170-2, and to Justina on Pelagianism, ib., ii., 180-2;
—— he, no infallible teacher, has formed the intellect of Christian Europe, Apo., 265;
—— his view of predestination modified by the efforts of the Jesuit school, Diff., ii., 336;
—— differs from that of Calvin toto cœlo in significance and effect, G.A., 251;
—— his interpretation of St. Cyprian on Episcopacy, Ess., ii., 32, 35;
—— his saying, Securus judicat orbis terrarum (Contr. Epist. Parmen., iii., 24), its effect on Newman, Ess., ii., 35; Apo., 116, 117; Diff., ii., 303, 372; Ess., ii., 40-3, notes

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