Discourse 3

Chapter 24.

Answer to objections from Scripture; seventhly, John xiv. 10

{357 | ED. BEN. iii. § 1.} 224. THE Ario-maniacs, when the passages which they allege, The Lord created Me, and Made better than the Angels, and First-born, and Faithful to Him that made Him, are shown to have an orthodox meaning, and to inculcate piety towards Christ, therefore, as if bedewed with the serpent's poison, not seeing what they ought to see, nor understanding what they read, as if bursting forth from the depth of their impious hearts, have next proceeded to disparage our Lord's words, I in the Father and the Father in Me; saying, "How can the One be contained in the Other and the Other in the One?" or "How at all can the Father who is the greater be contained in the Son who is the less?" or "What wonder, if the Son is in the Father, considering it certainly is written of us too, In Him we live and move and have our being?" And this state of mind is in keeping with the perverseness of men who think God to be material, and understand not what is signified by "True Father" and "True Son," by "Light Invisible" and "Eternal," and Its "Radiance Invisible," nor "Invisible Subsistent," and "Immaterial Impress" and "Immaterial Image." For had they known, they would not have dishonoured and ridiculed the Lord of glory, nor, interpreting things {358} immaterial after a material manner, perverted good words.

225. It were sufficient indeed, on only hearing words which are the Lord's, at once to believe, since the faith of simplicity is better than an elaborate process of persuasion; but since they have endeavoured to desecrate even this passage for the ends of their personal heresy, it becomes necessary to expose their perverseness and to show the purpose of the truth, at least for the security of the faithful. For when it is said, I in the Father and the Father in Me, They are not therefore, as these suppose, pouring Each into Other, filling Each Other, as in the case of empty vessels, so that the Son fills the emptiness of the Father and the Father that of the Son, and Each of Them by Himself is not complete and perfect, (for this is proper to bodies, and therefore the mere assertion of it is full of impiety,) for the Father is full and perfect, and the Son is the Fulness of Godhead. Nor again, as God, by coming into the Saints, strengthens them, so is it that He is also in the Son. For the Son is Himself the Father's Power and Wisdom, and by partaking of Him things created are sanctified in the Spirit; but the Son Himself is not Son by participation [Note 1], but is the Father's proper Offspring. Nor again, is the Son in the Father, in the sense of the passage, In Him we live and move and have our being; for, He as being from the Fount of the Father is the Life, in which all things are both quickened and consist; for the Life does not live in life, else it would not be Life, but rather He gives life to all things.

226. But now let us see what Asterius the Sophist says, the retained [Note 2] pleader for the heresy. In imitation then of the Jews so far, he writes as follows: "It is very plain that He has said, that He is in the Father and the Father again in Him, for this reason, that neither the word, on {359 | ED. BEN. iii. § 1-2.} which He was discoursing is, as He says, His own, but the Father's, nor the works belong to Him, but to the Father who gave Him the power." Now this, if uttered at random by a little child, had been excused from his age; but when one who bears the title of Sophist, and professes universal knowledge [Note 3], is the writer, what a serious condemnation does he deserve? And does he not show himself a stranger to the Apostle, as being puffed up with persuasive words of wisdom, and thinking thereby to succeed in deceiving, not understanding himself what he saith nor whereof he affirms? For what the Son has said, as being proper and suitable to a Son only, who is Word and Wisdom and Image of the Father's Substance, this he brings to the level of all the creatures, and makes common to the Son and to them; and he says, lawless [Note 4] man, that the Power of the Father receives power, that by means of this impiety it may be open to him to say that in a Son the Son was made a son, and the Word received a Word's authority; and, far from granting that He spoke this truth thus as a Son, he ranks Him with all things made, as having learned it as they have. For if the Son said, I am in the Father and the Father in Me, because His discourses were not His own words but the Father's, and so of His works, then, since David says, I will hear what the Lord shall say in me, and again Solomon, My words are spoken by God, and since Moses was minister of words which were from God, and since each of the Prophets spoke not what was his own but what was from God, Thus saith the Lord, and since the works of the Saints were, as they professed, not their own but God's {360} who gave the power, (Elias for instance and Eliseus invoking God that He Himself would raise the dead, and Eliseus saying to Naaman, on cleansing him from the leprosy, that thou mayest know that there is a God in Israel [Note 5], and Samuel too in the days of the harvest praying to God to grant rain, and the Apostles saying that not in their own power they did miracles but in the Lord's grace,) it is plain that, according to Asterius, such a statement as that in question must belong to all, so that each of them is able to say, I in the Father and the Father in me; and as a consequence that He is no longer One Son of God and Word and Wisdom, but, as others, is only one out of many.

227. But if the Lord said this, His words would not rightly have been, I in the Father and the Father in Me, but rather, "I also am in the Father and the Father also is in Me," that He may have nothing proper and by prerogative, relatively to the Father, as being a Son, but the same grace in common with all. But it is not so, as they think; for not understanding that there is a genuine Son from the Father, they belie that genuine Son, whom only it befits to say, I in the Father and the Father in Me. For the Son is in the Father, as it is allowed us to apprehend, because the whole Being of the Son is proper to the Father's substance, as radiance from light, and stream from fountain; so that whoso sees the Son, sees that which is the Father's, and apprehends that the Son's Being, because from the Father, is therefore in the Father. For the Father is in the Son, since the Son is what is from the Father and proper to Him, as in the radiance the sun, and in the word the thought, and in the stream the fountain: for whoso thus contemplates the Son, contemplates what {361 | ED. BEN. iii. § 2-4.} belongs to the Father's substance, and apprehends that the Father is in the Son. For whereas the countenance and Godhead of the Father is the Being of the Son, it follows that the Son is in the Father and the Father in the Son.

228. On this account and reasonably, having said before, I and the Father are One, He added, I in the Father and the Father in Me, by way of showing the identity of Godhead and the unity of Substance. For They are one, not as one thing which divides into two, and after all is nothing but one, nor as one thing twice named, so that the Same becomes at one time Father, at another His own Son, for Sabellius holding this was judged an heretic. But They are two, because the Father is Father and is not also Son, and the Son is Son and not also Father; but the nature is one; (for the offspring is not unlike its parent, for it is his image,) and all that is the Father's is the Son's. Wherefore neither is the Son another God, for He is not to be imagined as external, else were there many godheads; for if the Son be other, considered as an Offspring, still He is the Same, considered as God; and He and the Father are one in that nature which is proper and peculiar to Each, and in the identity of the one Godhead, as has been said. For the radiance also is light, not second to the sun, nor a different light, nor from participation of it, but a whole and proper offspring of it. And such an offspring is necessarily one light; and no one would say that they are two lights, but sun and radiance two, yet one the light from the sun enlightening in its radiance things everywhere. So also the Godhead of the Son is the Father's; whence also it is indivisible; and thus there is one God and none other but He. And so, since they are one, and the Godhead itself one, the same things are said of the Son which are said of the Father, except His being said to be Father:—for instance, that He is God, And the {362} Word was God; that He is Almighty, Thus said He which was and is and is to come, the Almighty; Lord, One Lord Jesus Christ; that He is Light, I am the Light; that He forgives sins, that ye may know, He says, that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins; and so with other attributes. For all things, says the Son Himself, whatsoever the Father hath, are Mine; and again, And Mine are Thine. And on hearing the attributes of the Father predicated of the Son, we shall thereby see the Father in the Son; and we shall contemplate the Son in the Father, whenever what is said of the Son is said of the Father also. And why are the attributes of the Father ascribed to the Son, except that the Son is an Offspring from Him? and why are the Son's attributes proper to the Father, except again because the Son is the proper Offspring of His Substance? And the Son, being the proper Offspring of the Father's Substance, reasonably says that the Father's attributes are His own also; whence suitably and consistently with saying, I and the Father are One, He adds, that ye may know that I am in the Father and the Father in Me.

229. Moreover, He has added this again, He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father; and there is one and the same sense in these three passages. For he who in this sense understands that the Son and the Father are one, knows that He is in the Father and the Father in the Son; for the Godhead of the Son is the Father's, and this is in the Son; and whoso enters into this, is convinced that He that hath seen the Son, hath seen the Father; for in the Son is contemplated the Father's Godhead. And we may perceive this more intimately from the illustration of the Emperor's image. For in the image is the face and form of the Emperor, and in the Emperor is that face which is in the image. For the likeness of the Emperor in the image is intimately exact [Note 6]; so that a person who looks at the image, {363 | ED. BEN. iii. § 4-6.} sees in it the Emperor; and he again who sees the Emperor, recognises that it is he who is in the image. And from the likeness not differing, to one who after the image wished to view the Emperor, the image might say, "I and the Emperor are one; for I am in him, and he in me; and what thou seest in me, that thou beholdest in him, and what thou hast seen in him, that thou beholdest in me." Accordingly he who worships the image, in it worships the Emperor also; for the image is his form and face. Since then the Son too is the Father's image, it must necessarily be understood that the Godhead and own self of the Father is the Being of the Son.

280. And this is the meaning of Who being in the form of God, and the Father in Me. Nor is this Form of the Godhead partial merely, but the fulness of the Father's Godhead is the Being of the Son, and the Son is whole God. Therefore also, being equal to God, He thought it not robbery to be equal to God; and again since the Godhead and the Face of the Son is none other's than the Father's, this is what He says, I in the Father. Thus God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself; for what belonged to the Substance of the Father is that Son, in whom the creation was then reconciled with God. And thus what things the Son then wrought, are the Father's works, for the Son is the Face of that Father's Godhead, who wrought the works. And thus he who looks at the Son, sees the Father; for in the Father's Godhead is and is contemplated the Son; and the Father's Face, which is in the Son, shows in Him the Father; and thus the Father is in the Son. And that peculiarity and Godhead which is from the Father in the Son, shows the Son in the Father, and His inseparability from Him; and whoso hears and apprehends that what is said of the Father is also said of the Son, not as added to His Substance by grace or participation, but because the very Being of the Son is the own {364} Offspring of the Father's Substance, will fitly understand the words, as I said before, I in the Father, and the Father in Me; and I and the Father are One. For the Son is such as the Father is, because He has all that is the Father's.

231. Wherefore also is He signified when the Father is named. For, a son not being, we cannot say father; whereas, when we call God a Maker, we do not of necessity manifest the things which through Him have come to be; for a maker is before his works. But when we call God Father, at once with the Father we signify the Son's existence. Therefore also he who believes in the Son, believes also in the Father; for he believes in what belongs to the Father's Substance; and thus the faith is one in One God. And he who worships and honours the Son, in the Son worships and honours the Father; for one is the Godhead; and therefore one the honour and one the worship which is paid to the Father in and through the Son. And he who thus worships, worships one God; for there is one God and none other than He. Accordingly when the Father is called the only God, and we read that there is one God, and I am, and beside Me there is no God, and I the first and I am the last, this has a fit meaning. For God is One and Only and First; but this is not said to the denial of the Son; perish the thought; for He is in that One, and First and Only, as being of that One and Only and First the Only Word and Wisdom and Radiance. And He is Himself the First, too, as being the Fulness of the Godhead of the First and Only, and whole and full God. We maintain then the Divine Unity, not as against the Son, but to deny that there is other such as the Father and His Word. {365 | ED. BEN. iii. § 6-7.}

Chapter 25.

Answer to objections from Scripture; eighthly, John xvii. 3, and the like

232. NOW that this is the sense of the Prophets is clear and manifest to all; but since the impious men, who allege such passages, dishonour the Lord and reproach us, saying, "Behold God is said to be One and Only and First; how say ye that the Son is God? for if He were God, He had not said, I Alone, nor God is One;" it is necessary to declare the sense of these phrases in addition, as far as our ability allows, that all may know from this also that verily the Arians are God's adversaries. If there then is rivalry of the Son towards the Father, then be such words uttered against Him; and if, according to the apprehensions of David concerning Adonias and Absalom, so too the Father looks upon the Son, then let Him say to Himself and insist on such words, lest He the Son, calling Himself God, make any to revolt from the Father. But if on the contrary, he who knows the Son, knows the Father, the Son Himself revealing Him to him, and in the Word rather he shall see the Father the more, as has been said, and if the Son on coming, glorified not Himself but the Father, saying to one who came to Him, Why callest thou Me good? none is good save One, that is, God; and to one who asked, what was the great commandment in the Law, answering, Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord; and saying to the multitudes, I came down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him that sent Me; and teaching the disciples, My Father is greater than I, and He that honoureth Me, honoureth Him that sent Me; if the Son is such towards His own Father, what is the difficulty [Note 7], that one must need take so perverse a view of such passages? {366} and on the other hand, if the Son is the Word of the Father, who is so wild, besides these Christ-opposers, as to think that God has thus spoken, as traducing and denying His own Word? This is not the mind of Christians; perish the thought; for not with reference to the Son is it thus written, but for the denial of those falsely called gods, invented by men.

233. And the explanation of such passages is obvious; for since those who are devout to gods falsely so called, revolt from the True God, therefore God, being good and careful for mankind, recalling the wanderers, says, I am God alone, and I am, and Besides Me there is no God, and the like; that He may condemn things which are not, and may convert all men to Himself. And as, supposing in the day-time when the sun was shining, a man were rudely to paint a piece of wood, which had not even the pretence to be luminous, and call that image the source of light, and if the sun with regard to it were to say, "I alone am the light of the day, and there is no other light of the day but I," he would say this, with reference, not to his own radiance, but to the error arising from the wooden image and the dissimilitude of that vain representation; so it is with I am, and I am Only God, and There is none other besides Me, viz., that He may make men renounce falsely called gods, and that they may recognise Him the true God instead.

234. Indeed when God said this, He said it through His own Word, unless forsooth these modern Jews add this too, that He has not said this through His Word; but "the Word of the Lord came" to the Prophet, and this was what was heard; this is what Scriptures declares, let them rave as they will; if the Word be His, of course this was said by the Word, for there is not the thing which God says or does, but He says and does it in the Word. Not then with reference to Him is this said, O God's enemies, but to things foreign to Him and not from Him. For according to the {367 | ED. BEN. iii. § 7-9.} aforesaid image, if the sun had spoken those words he would have been setting right the error, and have so spoken, not as separating his radiance from him, but in his own radiance showing his own light. Therefore, not for the denial of the Son, nor with reference to Him, are such passages, but to the overthrow of falsehood. Accordingly God spoke not such words to Adam at the beginning, though His Word was with Him, by whom all things came to be; for there was no need, before idols came in; but when men made insurrection against the truth, and named for themselves gods such as they would, then it was that need arose of such words, for the denial of gods that were not. Nay I would add, that they were said even in anticipation of the folly of these Christ-opposers, that they might know, that whatsoever god they devise external to the Father's Substance, he is not True God, nor Image and Son of the Only and First.

285. If then the Father be called the only true God, this is said, not to the denial of Him who said, I am the Truth, but of those on the other hand who by nature are not true, as the Father and His Word are. And hence the Lord Himself added at once, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent. Now had He been a creature, He would not have added this, and ranked Himself with His Creator; (for what fellowship is there between the True and the not true?) but now by adding Himself to the Father, He has shown that He is of the Father's nature; and He has given us to know that of the True Father He is True Offspring. And John too, as he had learned, so he teaches [Note 8] this, writing in his Epistle, And we are in the True, even in His Son Jesus Christ; This is the True God and eternal life. And when the Prophet says concerning the creation, That stretcheth forth the heavens alone, and when God says {368} I only stretch out the heavens, it is made plain to every one that in the Only is signified also the Word of the Only, in whom all things were made, and without whom was made not one thing. Therefore, if they were made through the Word, and yet He says, I only, and together with that Only is understood the Son, through whom the heavens were made, so also then, if it be said, One God and I Only, and I the First, in that One and Only and First is understood the Word co-existing, as in the Light the Radiance.

286. And this can be held in respect of no other but the Word alone. For all other things subsisted out of nothing through the Son, and are greatly different in nature; but the Son Himself is natural and true Offspring from the Father; and thus the very passage which these men have thought fit to adduce, I the First, in defence of their heresy, doth rather expose their perverse spirit. For God says, I the First and I the Last; if then, as if ranked with the things after Him, He is said to be first of them, so that they come next to Him, then certainly you will have shown that He Himself precedes the works in time only; which, to go no further, is a surpassing impiety; but if it is in order to prove that He is not from any, nor any before Him, but that He is Origin and cause of all things, and to destroy the Gentile fables, that He has said I the First, it is plain also, that when the Son is called First-born, this is done, not for the sake of ranking Him with the creation, but to prove the framing and adoption of all things through the Son. For as the Father is First, so also is He both First, as Image of the First, and because the First is in Him, and as being Offspring from the Father, in whom the whole creation is created and adopted into sonship. {369 | ED. BEN. iii. § 9-10.}

Chapter 26.

Answer to objections from Scripture; ninthly, John x. 30; xvii. 11, &c.

237. HOWEVER, here too they put forward their private fictions, and contend that the Son and the Father are not in such wise "one," or "like," as the Church preaches, but, as they themselves would have it [Note 9]. For they say, since what the Father wills, the Son wills also, and is not contrary to Him either in what He thinks or in what He judges, but is in all respects concordant with Him, declaring doctrines which are the same, and a message consistent and united with the Father's teaching, therefore it is that He and the Father are One; and some of them have dared to write as well as to say this. Now what can be more extravagant than this? for if this is the reason why the Son and the Father are One, and if in this way the Word is like the Father, it follows forthwith [Note 10] that the Angels too, and the other beings above us, Principalities and Powers and Thrones and Dominions, and things visible, Sun and Moon, and the Stars, should be Sons also, as the Son is; and that it should be said of them too, that they and the Father are one, and that each is God's Image and Word. For what God wills, that will they; and neither in judging nor in doctrine are they discordant, but in all things are obedient to their Maker. For they would not have remained in their own glory, unless, what the Father willed, that they had willed also. He, for instance, who did not preserve it, {370} but lost his mind, heard the words, How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!

238. But if this be so, how is He alone Only-begotten Son and Word and Wisdom? or how, whereas so many are like the Father, is only He an Image? for among men too will be found many like the Almighty Father, numbers, for instance, who became martyrs, and before them the Apostles and Prophets, and again before them the Patriarchs. And many now too have kept the Saviour's command, being merciful, as their Father who is in heaven, and observing the exhortation, Be ye therefore followers of God as dear children, and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us; many too have become followers of Paul as he also of Christ. And yet no one of these is Word or Wisdom, or Only-begotten Son or Image; nor has any one of them had the audacity to say, I and the Father are One, or, I in the Father, and the Father in Me; but it is said of all of them, Who is like unto Thee among the gods, O Lord? and who shall be likened to the Lord among the sons of God? and of Him on the contrary that He only is Image true and natural of the Father. For though we were made after the Image, and called both image and glory of God, yet not on our own account is it still, but it is by reason of that Image and true Glory of God inhabiting us, which is His Word, who was for us afterwards made flesh, that we have the grace of this calling.

239. This notion of theirs then being evidently unbefitting and irrational as well as the rest, the likeness and the oneness must be referred to the very Substance of the Son; for unless it be so taken, He will not be shown to have anything beyond things created, as has been said, nor will He be like the Father, but He will merely be like the Father's doctrines; nay, and He differs from the Father, in that the Father is the Father's self, but the doctrines and teaching are beside the Father. If then in respect to the doctrines and the teaching the Son is like the Father, {371 | ED. BEN. iii. § 10-11.} then the Father according to them will be Father in name only, and the Son will not be an unvarying Image, or rather will be seen to have no claim to be like or to belong to the Father; for what that is like or proper has He who is so utterly different from the Father? for Paul taught like the Saviour, yet was not like Him in substance. Having then such notions, they speak falsely; whereas the Son and the Father are one in such wise as has been said, and in such wise is the Son like the Father Himself and from Him, as we may see and understand a son to be towards his father, and as we may see the radiance towards the sun [Note 11].

240. Such then being the Son, therefore when the Son works, the Father is the Worker, and when the Son visits the Saints, the Father is He who cometh in the Son, as He has promised when He says, I and My Father will come, and will make our abode with him; for in the Image is contemplated the Father, and in the Radiance is the Light. Therefore, as we said just now, when the Father gives grace and peace, the Son also gives it, as Paul signifies in every Epistle, writing, Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. For one and the same grace is from the Father in the Son, as the light of the sun and of the radiance is one, and the sun's illumination is effected through the radiance; and so too when he prays for the Thessalonians, in saying, Now God Himself, even our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, may He direct our way unto you, he has guarded the unity of the Father and of the Son. For he has not said, "May they direct," as if a double grace were given from two Sources, This and That, but May He direct, to show that the Father gives it through the Son;—at which these impious ones will not blush, though they well might. For if there were {372} no unity, nor the Word the proper Offspring of the Father's Substance, as the radiance of the light, but the Son were divided in nature from the Father, it were sufficient that the Father alone should give, since none of created things is a partner with his Maker in His givings; but, as it is, such a mode of giving shows the oneness of the Father and the Son. No one, for instance, would pray to receive from God and the Angels, or from any other creature, nor would any one say, "God and the Angel may He give thee;" [Note 12] but from Father and the Son, because of Their oneness and the oneness of Their giving. For through the Son is given what is given; and there is nothing that the Father does not operate through the Son; for thus is grace secure to him who receives it.

241. And if the Patriarch Jacob, blessing his grandchildren Ephraim and Manasses, said, God who fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel that delivered me from all evil, bless the lads, yet none of created and natural Angels did He join to God their Creator, nor, rejecting God that fed him, did he from any Angel ask the blessing on his grandsons; but in saying, Who delivered me from all evil, he showed that it was no created Angel, but the Word of God, whom he joined to the Father in his prayer, through whom, God, whomsoever He will, doth deliver. For knowing that He is also called the Father's Angel of great Counsel, he said that none other than He was the Giver of blessing, and Deliverer from evil. Nor was it that he desired a blessing for himself from God, and for his grandchildren from the Angel, but for them too from Him whom he himself had {373 | ED. BEN. iii. § 12-13.} besought saying, I will not let Thee go except Thou bless me, (for that was God, as he says himself, I have seen God face to face,) for Him it was that he addressed for a blessing on the sons of Joseph also.

242. It belongs then to an Angel to minister at the command of God, and often does he go forth to cast out the Amorite, and is sent to guard the people in the way; but these are not his doings, but God's, who commanded and sent him, whose also it is to deliver whom He will deliver. Therefore it was no other than the Lord God Himself whom he had seen, who said to him, And behold I am with thee, to guard thee in all the way whither thou goest; and it was no other than the God whom he had seen, who kept Laban from his treachery, ordering him not to speak evil words to Jacob; and none other than God did he himself beseech, saying, Rescue me from the hand of my brother Esau, for I fear him; for in conversation too with his wives he said, God hath not suffered Laban to injure me. Therefore it was none other than God Himself that David too besought concerning his deliverance, When I was in trouble, I called upon the Lord, and He heard me; deliver my soul, O Lord, from lying lips and from a deceitful tongue. To Him also giving thanks, he spoke the words of the Song in the seventeenth Psalm, in the day in which the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul, saying, I will love Thee, O Lord my strength; the Lord is my strong rock and my defence and deliverer. And Paul, after enduring many persecutions, to none other than God gave thanks, saying, Out of them all the Lord delivered me; and He will deliver, in whom we trust. And none other than God blessed Abraham and Isaac; and Isaac praying for Jacob, said, May God bless thee and increase thee and multiply thee, and thou shalt be for many companies of nations, and may He give thee the blessing of Abraham my father. {374}

243. But if it belong to none other than God to bless and to deliver, and none other was the deliverer of Jacob than the Lord Himself, and if Him the Patriarch besought for his grandsons, Him who had delivered him, evidently none other did he join to God in his prayer, than God's Word, whom therefore he called Angel, because it is He alone who reveals the Father. Which the Apostle also did when he said, Grace unto you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ; for thus the blessing was secure, because of the Son's indivisibility from the Father, and because the grace given by Them is one and the same. For though the Father gives it, through the Son is the gift; and though the Son be said to vouchsafe it, it is the Father who supplies it through and in the Son; for I thank my God, says the Apostle writing to the Corinthians, always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you in Christ Jesus. And this we may see in the instance of light and radiance; for what the light enlightens, that the radiance irradiates; and when the radiance irradiates, from the light is its enlightenment. So also when the Son is beheld, so is the Father, for He is the Father's radiance; and thus the Father and the Son are one.

244. But this is not so with things which have been brought into being and are creatures; for when the Father works, it is not that any Angel works, or any other creature; for none of these is an efficient cause, but they are of things which come to be; and moreover being separate and divided from the only God, and other than He in nature, and being mere works, they can neither work what God works, nor, as I said before, when God gives grace, can they give grace with Him. Nor, on seeing an Angel, would a man say that he had seen the Father; for Angels, as it is written, are ministering spirits sent forth to serve, and are heralds of gifts given from Him through the Word to their recipients. And the Angel on his appearance himself confesses that {375 | ED. BEN. iii. § 13-14.} he has been sent by his Lord, as Gabriel confessed in the case of Zacharias, and also in the case of Mary, Mother of God. And he who beholds a vision of Angels, knows that he has seen the Angel and not God. For Zacharias saw an Angel; but Esaias saw the Lord. Manoe, the father of Samson, saw an Angel, but Moses beheld God. Gideon saw an Angel, but to Abraham appeared God. And neither he who saw God beheld an Angel, nor he who saw an Angel considered that he saw God; for greatly, or rather wholly, do things of created nature differ from God the Creator. But if at any time, when the Angel was seen, he who saw it heard God's voice, as took place at the bush; for the Angel of the Lord was seen in a flame of fire out of the bush, and the Lord called Moses out of the bush, saying, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, still the Angel was not the God of Abraham, but in the Angel God spoke. And what was seen was an Angel; but God spoke in him. For as He spoke to Moses in the pillar of a cloud in the tabernacle, so also God appears and speaks in Angels. So again to the son of Nave He spake by an Angel. But what God speaks, it is very plain He speaks through the Word, and not through another. And the Word, as being not separate from the Father, nor unlike and foreign to the Father's Substance, what He works, those are the Father's works, and His framing of all things is one with His; and what the Son gives, that is the Father's gift. And he who hath seen the Son, knows that in seeing Him, he has seen, not Angel, nor one merely greater than Angels, nor in short any creature, but the Father Himself. And He who hears the Word, knows that he hears the Father; as he who is irradiated by the radiance, knows that he is enlightened by the sun.

245. For divine Scripture wishing us thus to understand the matter, has given us such illustrations, as we have {376} said above, from which we are able both to press the traitorous Jews, and to refute the allegation of Gentiles who maintain and think, on account of the Triad, that we profess many Gods. For, as the illustration shows, we do not introduce three Origins or three Fathers, as the followers of Marcion and Manichæus; since we have not suggested the image of three suns, but sun and radiance. And one only is the light from the sun in the radiance; and so we know of but one origin; and the All-framing Word we hold to have no other manner of godhead than that of the Only God, because He is born from Him. Rather then will the Ario-maniacs with reason incur the charge of polytheism or else of atheism, because they idly talk of the Son as external and a creature, and again of the Spirit as from nothing. For either they will say that the Word is not God; or, saying that He is God, because it is so written, but not proper to the Father's Substance, they will be introducing many Words, as admitting in God a difference of kind;—(unless forsooth they shall dare to say that by participation only, He, as all things else, is called God; though, if this be their sentiment, their impiety is the same, as considering the Word as one among all things)—but may this never even come into our minds! For there is but one Face [Note 13] of Godhead, which is also in the Word; and one God, the Father, existing of Himself according as He is above all, and appearing in the Son according as He pervades all things, and in the Spirit according as in Him He acts in all things through the Word. For thus we confess God to be one through the Trinity, and we say that our belief in the one Godhead in the Trinity is a much more religious conception than the godhead which the heretics acknowledge with its many forms and its many parts.

246. For if it be not so, but the Word is a creature and a work out of nothing, either He is not True God, because {377 | ED. BEN. iii. § 15-16.} He is Himself one of the creatures, or if they name Him God from regard for the Scriptures, they must of necessity say that there are two Gods, one Creator, the other creature, and must serve two Lords, one Ingenerate, and the other generate and a creature; and must have two faiths, one in the True God, and the other in one who is made and fashioned by themselves and called God. And it follows of necessity, in so great blindness, that, when they worship the Ingenerate, they renounce the generate, and when they come to the creature, they turn from the Creator. For they cannot see the One in the Other, because Their natures and operations are to them foreign and distinct from each other. And with such sentiments, they will certainly be going on to more gods, for this is the proceeding of those who have revolted from the One God. Wherefore then, when the Arians have these speculations and views, do they not rank themselves with the Gentiles? for they too, as these, worship the creature more than God the Creator of all; and though they shrink from the Gentile name, in order to deceive the unskilful, yet they secretly hold a like sentiment with them.

247. Their subtle saying which they are accustomed to urge, "We say not two Ingenerates," they plainly employ to deceive the simple; for in their very professing "We say not two Ingenerates," they imply two Gods, and these with different natures, one generate and one Ingenerate. And though the Greeks worship one Ingenerate and many generate gods, while Arians one Ingenerate and one generate, this is no difference between them; for the God whom these men call generate is one out of many; and again, the many gods of the Greeks have the same nature with this one, for both he and they are creatures. Wretched then are they and greater traitors than the Jews in their denial of the Christ, and they wallow with the Gentiles, being hateful to God, as worshipping the creature and many deities. {378}

248. For there is One God, and not many, and One is His Word, and not many; for the Word is God, and He alone has the Face of the Father. Being then such, the Saviour Himself urged the Jews with these words, The Father Himself who hath sent Me, hath borne witness of Me; ye have neither heard His voice at any time nor seen His Face; and ye have not His Word abiding in you; for whom He hath sent, Him ye believe not. Suitably has He joined the Word to the Face, to show that the Word of God is Himself Image and Impress and Face of His Father; and that the Jews who did not receive Him who spoke to them, thereby did not receive the Word, which is the Face of God. This too it was that the Patriarch Jacob having seen, received a blessing from Him and the name of Israel instead of Jacob, as divine Scripture witnesses, saying, And as the Face of God passed by, the sun rose upon him. And This it was who said, He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father, and, I in the Father and the Father in Me, and, I and the Father are one; for thus God is One, and one the faith in the Father and Son; for, though the Word be God, the Lord our God is one Lord; for the Son belongs to that One, and is inseparably His according to what is proper and peculiar to His Substance.

249. The Arians, however, reply, "Not as you say, but as we will; and we will thus:—So are the Son and the Father One, and so is the Father in the Son and the Son in the Father, as we too may become one in Him. For this is written in the Gospel according to John, and Christ desired it for us in these words, Holy Father, keep through Thine own Name those whom Thou had given life, that they may be one, as We are. And shortly after: Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on Me through their word; that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that Thou hast sent Me. And the {379 | ED. BEN. iii. § 16-17.} glory which Thou gavest Me I have given them, that they may be one, even as We are one; I in them, and Thou in Me, that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that Thou hast sent Me." Then, as having found an evasion, these men of craft [Note 14] add, "If, as we become one in the Father, so also He and the Father are one, and thus He too is in the Father, how pretend you from His saying, I and the Father are One, and I in the Father and the Father in Me, that He is proper and like the Father's Substance? for it follows either that we too are proper to the Father's Substance, or He foreign to it, as we are foreign."

250. What is this but saying after the pattern of the evil one, "We will ascend to heaven, we will be like the Most High." For what is given to man by grace, this they would make equal to the Godhead of the Giver. Thus hearing that men are called sons, they thought themselves equal to the True Son who is by nature such. And now again hearing from the Saviour, that they may be one as We are, they deceive themselves, and are arrogant enough to think that they may be such as the Son is in the Father and the Father in the Son; not considering the fall of their father the devil, which happened upon such an imagination. If then, as we have many times said, the Word of God is the same with us, and nothing differs from us except in time, let Him be like us, and have the same place with the Father as we have; nor let Him be called Only-begotten, nor only Word or Wisdom of the Father; but let the same name be of common {380} application to all us who are like Him. For it is right that they who have one nature should have their name in common, though they differ from each other in point of time. For Adam was a man, and Paul a man, and he who has come into being at this day is a man, and time is not that condition which alters the nature of the race. If then the Word also differs from us only in time, then we must be as He. But in truth neither we are Word or Wisdom, nor is He creature or work; else why are we all sprung from one, and He the Only Word? but though it be suitable to them thus to speak, in us at least it is unsuitable to entertain their blasphemies. And yet, needless though it be to refine [Note 15] upon these passages, considering their so clear and religious sense, and our own orthodox belief, yet that their irreligion may be shown here also, come let us shortly, as we have received from the fathers, expose their heterodoxy from the passage in question.

251. It is a custom with divine Scripture to take the things of nature as images and illustrations for mankind; and this it does, that from these physical objects the moral impulses of man may be explained; and thus their conduct shown to be either bad or righteous. For instance, in the case of the bad, as when it charges, Be ye not like to horse and mule which have no understanding. Or as when it says, complaining of those who have become such, Man, being in honour hath no understanding, but is compared unto the beasts that perish. And again, They were as fed horses in the morning. And the Saviour to expose Herod said, Tell that fox: but, on the other hand, charged His disciples, Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves; be ye therefore wise as serpents and innocent {381 | ED. BEN. iii. § 18-19.} as doves. And He said this, not that we may become in nature beasts of burden, or become serpents and doves; for He hath not so made us Himself, and therefore nature does not allow of it; but that we might eschew the irrational motions of the one, and being aware of the wisdom of that other animal, might not be deceived by it, and might take on us the meekness of the dove. Again, taking patterns for man from divine subjects, the Saviour says, Be ye merciful, as your Father who is in heaven is merciful; and, Be ye perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. And He said this too, not that we might become such as the Father; for to become as the Father is impossible for us creatures, who have been brought into being out of nothing; but as He charged us, Be ye not like to horse, not lest we should become as draught animals, but that we ought not to imitate their want of reason; so not that we might become as God, did He say, Be ye merciful as your Father, but that, looking at His beneficent acts, what we do well, we might do not for men's sake, but for His sake, so that from Him and not from men we may have the reward. For as, although there be one Son by nature, True and Only-begotten, we too become sons, not as He in nature and truth, but according to the grace of Him that calleth; and though we are men from the earth, we are yet called gods, not as the True God or His Word, but as has pleased God who has given us that grace; so also, as God do we become merciful, not by being made equal to God, nor becoming in nature and truth benefactors, (for it is not our gift to benefit, but it belongs to God,) but in order that what has come to us from God Himself by grace, these things we may impart to others without making distinctions, but largely towards all extending our kind service. For only then and in this way can we anyhow become imitators, and in no other, when we minister to others what comes from Him. {382}

252. And as we put a fair and orthodox sense upon these texts, such again is the sense of the passage in John. For He does not say, that as the Son is in the Father, such we must become:—whence could it be? when He is God's Word and Wisdom, and we were fashioned out of the earth, and He is by nature and substance Word and true God,—for thus speaks John, We know that the Son of God is come, and He hath given us an understanding to know Him that is True, and we are in Him that is true, even in His Son Jesus Christ; this is the true God and eternal life. And we are made sons through Him by adoption and grace, as partaking of His Spirit, (for as many as received Him, he says, to them gave He power to become children of God, even to them that believe on His Name,) and therefore also He is the Truth, (saying, I am the Truth, and in His address to His Father, He said Sanctify them through Thy Truth, Thy Word is Truth;) but we by imitation become virtuous and sons:—therefore, not that we may become such as He, did He say, that they may be one as We are; but that as He, being the Word, is in His own Father, so we too, taking Him as an exemplar and looking at Him, might become one towards each other in unanimity and oneness of spirit, nor be at variance as the Corinthians, but breathe the same sentiments as those five thousand in the Acts, who were as one. For it is as sons, not as the Son; as gods, not as He Himself, and merciful as the Father, but still not as the Father. And, as has been said, by so becoming one, as the Father and the Son, we shall be such, not as the Father is by nature in the Son and the Son in the Father, but according to our own nature, and as it is possible for us from that nature to be moulded and to learn how we ought to be one, just as we learned also to be merciful. For like things are naturally one with like; thus all flesh is ranked together in kind; but the Word is unlike us and like the Father. And {383 | ED. BEN. iii. § 19-21.} therefore while He is in nature and truth one with His own Father, we, as being of one kind with each other, (for from one were all made, and one is the nature of all men,) become one with each other in good disposition, having as our copy the Son's natural unity with the Father. For as He taught us meekness from Himself, saying, Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart, not that we may become equal to Him, which is impossible, but that looking towards Him, we may remain meek continually, so also here, wishing that our good disposition [Note 16] towards each other should be true and firm and indissoluble, from Himself taking the pattern, He says, that they may be one, as We are whose oneness is indivisible; that is, that "they learning from Us what is Our indivisible Nature, may preserve in like manner agreement one with another." And this imitation of things which are in nature is especially safe for man, as has been said; for since they remain and never change, whereas the conduct of men is very changeable, one may look to what is unchangeable by nature, and avoid what is bad, and re-model themselves on what is best.

253. And for this reason also the words that they may be one in Us, have a right sense: "in Us" means "after our pattern." If, for instance, it were possible for us to become as the Son in the Father, the words ought to run, "that they may be one in Thee," as the Son is in the Father; but, as it is, He has not said this; but by saying in Us He has pointed out the distance and difference; that He indeed is Only in the Only Father, as Only Word and Wisdom; but we in the Son, and through Him in the Father. And thus speaking, He meant this Only, "By Our unity may they also be so one with each other, as We {384} are one in nature and truth; for otherwise they could not be one, except by learning unity in Us." And that in Us has this signification we may learn from Paul, who says, These things I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos, that ye may learn in us not to be puffed up above that is written. The words in Us, then, are not "in the Father," as the Son is in Him; but imply an example and image, instead of saying, "Let them learn of Us." For as Paul to the Corinthians, so is the oneness of the Son and the Father a pattern and lesson to all, by which they may learn, looking to that natural unity of the Father and the Son, how they themselves ought to be one in spirit towards each other. Or if it needs to account for the phrase otherwise, the words in Us may mean the same as saying, that in the power of the Father and the Son they may be one, speaking the same things; for without God this is impossible. And this mode of speech also we may find in the divine writings, as In God will we do great acts; and In Thee will we tread down our enemies. Therefore it is plain, that in the Name of Father and Son we shall be able, becoming one, to hold firm the bond of charity.

254. For dwelling still on the same thought, the Lord says, And the glory which Thou gavest Me I have given to them, that they may be one as We are one. Suitably has He here too said, not, "That they may be in Thee as I am," for that would have been to make Him one of them, and to make them one with the Father, but as We are; but as to the word as, it signifies not identity with, but an image and example of the things spoken of. The Word then has the real and true identity of nature with the Father; but to us it is given to imitate it, as has been said; for He immediately adds, I in them and Thou in Me; that they may be made perfect in one. Here at length the Lord asks something greater and more perfect for us; for it is plain {385 | ED. BEN. iii. § 21-23.} that it is in us that the Word has come to be, for He has put on our body. And Thou Father in Me; "for I am Thy Word, and since Thou art in Me, because I am Thy Word, and since I am in them by reason of the body, and since by reason of Thee the salvation of men is perfected in Me, therefore I ask that they also may become one, according to the body that is in Me and according to its perfection; that they too may become perfect, having oneness with It, and having become all one in It; that, as if all were carried by Me, all may be one body and one spirit, and may grow up unto a perfect man." For we all, partaking of the Same, become one body, having the one Lord in ourselves. Since the passage then has this meaning, still more plainly is refuted the heterodoxy of Christ's enemies. I repeat it: if He had said simply and absolutely "that they may be one in Thee," or "that they and I may be one in Thee," God's enemies had had some plea, though an extravagant; but in fact He has not spoken simply, but, As Thou, Father, in Me, and I in Thee, that they may be all one.

255. Moreover, by using the word as, He marks that He is speaking of those who only distantly become what He is in the Father; distantly not in place but in nature; for in place nothing is far from God, in nature alone all things are far from Him. And, I said before, whoso uses the particle as implies, not identity nor equality with, but a copy of the matter in question, when viewed in a certain respect. Indeed we may learn also from our Saviour Himself, when He says, For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. For Jonas was not as the Saviour, nor did Jonas go down to Hades; nor was the whale Hades; nor did Jonas, when swallowed up, bring up those who had before been swallowed by the whale, but he alone came forth, when {386} the whale was bidden. Therefore there is no identity nor equality signified in the term as, but one thing and another; and there is a certain kind of parallel to our Lord in the case of Jonas, on account of the three days. In like manner then we too, when the Lord says as, neither become as the Son is in the Father, nor as the Father is in the Son. For we become one as the Father and the Son in mind and agreement of spirit, and the Saviour will be as Jonas buried in the earth; but as the Saviour is not Jonas, nor, as he, was swallowed up, so did the Saviour descend into Hades, but it is only a parallel; in like manner, if we too become one, as the Son in the Father, we shall not be as the Son nor equal to Him; for He and we are but parallels. For on this account is the word as applied to us; since things differing from others in nature become as they when viewed in a certain relation.

256. Wherefore the Son Himself, simply and without any condition, is in the Father; for this attribute He has by nature; but for us, to whom it is not natural, there is needed a pattern and example, that He may say of us, As Thou in Me, and I in Thee. "And when they shall be so perfected," He says, "then the world knows that Thou hast sent Me, for unless I had come and borne this their body, no one of them had been perfected, but one and all had remained corruptible. Work Thou then in them, O Father; and as Thou hast given to Me to bear this body, grant to them Thy Spirit, that they too in It may become one, and may be perfected in Me. For their perfecting shows that Thy Word has sojourned among them; and the world seeing them perfect and full of God, will believe altogether that Thou hast sent Me, and I have sojourned here. For whence is this their perfecting, but that I, Thy Word, having borne their body, and become man, have perfected the work which Thou gavest Me, O Father? And the work is perfected, because men, redeemed from sin, no longer {387 | ED. BEN. iii. § 23-24.} remain dead; but being made gods, have in each other, by looking at Me, the bond of charity."

257. We then, by way of giving a rude view of the language used in this passage, have been led into many words; but blessed John in his Epistle will show the sense of the words, concisely and much more perfectly than we can. And he will both disprove the interpretation of these impious men, and will teach how we come to be in God and God in us, and how again in Him we become One, and how utterly the Son differs in nature from us; and he will thereby rid the Arians of their imagination that they shall be as the Son, lest they hear it said to them, Thou art a man and not God, and, Stretch not thyself, being poor, beside the rich. John then thus writes: Hereby know we that we dwell in Him and He in us, because He hath given us of His Spirit. Therefore, because of the grace of the Spirit which has been given to us, in Him we come to be, and He in us; and since it is the Spirit of God, therefore through His becoming in us, reasonably are we, as having the Spirit, considered to be in God, and thus is God in us. Not then as the Son in the Father, so also we come to be in the Father; for the Son of God does not merely partake the Spirit, in order to His being in the Father; nor again does He receive the Spirit at all, but rather He supplies It Himself to all; and the Spirit does not unite the Word to the Father, but rather the Spirit receives from the Word. And the Son is in the Father, as His proper Word and Radiance; but we, apart from the Spirit, are foreign and distant from God, and by the participation of the Spirit we are knit into the Godhead; so that our being in the Father is not ours by nature, but is the Spirit's gift who is in us and abides in us, while by confession of the faith we preserve It in us, John again saying, Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him and he in God. {388}

258. What then is our likeness and equality to the Son? rather, are not the Arians confuted on every side? and especially by John, from whom we learn that the Son is in the Father in one way, and we become in Him in another, and that neither we shall ever be as He, nor is the Word as we; unless indeed they boldly persist in saying still, that the Son also by participation of the Spirit and by ethical improvement [Note 17] came to be in the Father. But here again there is an excess of impiety, even in admitting the thought. For He, as has been said, gives to the Spirit, and whatever the Spirit hath, He hath from the Word. The Saviour, then, saying of us, As Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they too may be one in Us, does not signify that we were to have identity with Him, as was shown from the instance of Jonas; but it is a claim upon the Father, as John has written, that the Spirit should be vouchsafed through Him to those who believe, through whom we are found to be in God, and in this respect to be united in Him. For since the Word is in the Father, and the Spirit is given from the Word, He wills that we should receive the Spirit, in order that, when we receive It, then, having the Spirit of the Word who is in the Father, we too may be found, by reason of the Spirit, One in the Word, and through Him with the Father.

259. And if He says, as we, this again is only a request that such grace of the Spirit as is given to the disciples may be without failure or revocation. For what the Word has in the way of nature, as I said, in the Father, that He wishes to be given to us through the Spirit irrevocably; which the Apostle knowing, said, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? for the gifts of God and grace of {389 | ED. BEN. iii. § 24-26.} His calling are without repentance. It is the Spirit then which is in God, and not we viewed in our own selves; and as we are sons and gods because of the Word in us, so we shall be in the Son and in the Father, and we shall be accounted to have become one in Son and in Father, inasmuch as that Spirit is in us which is in the Word who is in the Father. When then a man falls from the Spirit for any wickedness, if he repent after his fall, the grace remains irrevocably to such souls as have the will; but he who has fallen is no longer in God, (because that Holy Spirit and Paraclete which is in God has deserted him,) and shall henceforth be in him to whom he has subjected himself, as took place in Saul's instance; for the Spirit of God departed from him and an evil spirit afflicted him. God's enemies hearing this ought to be thereupon abashed, and no longer to feign themselves equal to God. But they neither understand (for the irreligious, he saith, does not understand knowledge) nor endure religious words, but find them heavy even to hear.


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1. Vid. App. [metousia].
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2. Vid. App. Asterius.
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3. [panta ginoskein epangellomenos]. Gorgias according to Cicero de Fin. ii. init. was the first who ventured in public to say [proballete], "give me a question." This was the [epangelma] of the Sophists, of which Aristotle speaks, ascribing to Protagoras the "profession" of being able to "make the worse cause the better." Rhet. ii. 24 fin. Vid. Cressol. Theatr. Rhet. iii. 11.
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4. [paranomos], Hist. Ar. 71, 75, 79. Ep. Æg. 16, d. Vid. [anomos], 2 Thess. ii. 8.
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5. [exaireton], vid. supr. p. 274, iv. § 28. init. Euseb. Eccl. Theol. pp. 47, b. 73, b. 89, b. 124, a. 129, c. Theodor. Hist. p. 732. Nyss. contr. Eunom. iii. p. 133, a. Epiph. Hær. 76, p. 970. Cyril. Thes. p. 160.
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6. Vid. App. [aparallaktos].
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7. Vid. supr. Disc. nn. 12, 65, 88, 105, &c. vid. App. [orthos].
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8. [mathon edidaxe]. And so [mathon edidasken], supr. p. 21, and [erotontes emanthanon], supr. p. 250, vid. App. Tradition.
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9. [hos autoi thelousi]. This is a common phrase with Athan., and is here connected with private judgment ([idion]) in contrast to the Ecclesiastical Tradition. vid. supr. [hous ethelon], n. 235, and infr. [hos hemeis thelomen], n. 249. Vid. App. Tradition.
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10. [hora einai kai]; vid. also de Syn. § 34, Orat. i. § 15, ii. § 6, iv. § 10, 19, Serap. ii. § 1. Cyr. Dial. p. 456. Thes. p. 255, fin. Euseb. c. Marc. pp. 47, 91. Also [kairos], Decr. § 15.
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11. As regards Almighty God, real likeness to Him is identity with Him. This strikes at the Semi-Arians.
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12. This seems to show that in Athanasius's day such joint invocations of God and His servants were not in use in the Alexandrian Church. But that the question was one of discipline, not of what was lawful, seems clear from such passages in Scripture as, "they worshipped the Lord and the King," "the people believed the Lord and His servant Moses." As to the point of Christian dogma, Catholics now are as earnest as Athanasius could be, in holding that no temporal or spiritual gift simply comes from creatures.
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13. [eidos], character, features.
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14. [hoi dolioi]. And so [hoi theostugeis], supr. § 16; [hoi kakophrones], infr. § 26; [hoi deilaioi], ibid.; [hoi paraphrones], de Decr. § 8, a.; [hoi athlioi], Orat. ii. § 39 fin.; [hoi dussebeis], in illud Omn. 3 fin.; [hoi thaumastoi], Ep. Æg. 14, c. 16 init.; [hoi panourgoi], Ep. Æg. 16. c.; [hoi paranomoi], Ep. Æg. 16. d.; [hoi atimoi], Serap. i. 15, f.; [hoi anoetoi], Orat. ii. § 11, c.; [hoi meden aletheuontes], Hist. Ar. 7, b.; [hoi apanthropoi kai misokaloi], ibid. e.; [hoi hupoptoi], ibid. 9, d.; [hoi tolmeroi], ibid. 20, e.; [hoi aphrones], ibid. 47, d., &c. &c.
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15. [periergazesthai], vid. Orat. ii. § 34, § 73. fin. iii. § 1. § 43, init. iv. § 33 init. Serap. i. 15 fin. 17, d. 18, e. [perierga] in Acts xix. 19, is generally interpreted of magic, though it is otherwise explained as embracing various kinds of bad books in Ortlob. Dissert. ap. Thesaur. Nov. Theol.-Phil. in N. T. t. 2.
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16. [diathesei], disposition; this is  its sense in Decr. § 2 fin. Orat. ii. § 4, iii. § 20. Monach. init. Hist. Arian. § 45. Hipp. c. Noet. 7, Theod. Hist. i. 4 (5), init. Parker strangely translates in ii. § 4, "external condition."
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17. [beltiosei praxeos], and so ad Afros, [tropon beltiosis], 8. Vid. also Orat. i. §§ 37, 43, 47, &c. (supr. pp. 215 init., 222 fin. 227, &c.)
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Newman Reader — Works of John Henry Newman
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