Catechetical Instructions

August 28, 1849
The Creed—De Deo—I

1. INTROD.—On the articles not embracing the whole truth—a number of others, but we believe whatever the Church teaches; if you are in difficulty this the great rule—(enlarge—come to be taught, no use coming else). Why called the Apostles' [Creed]?

2. By 'God' we mean one who is all-perfect—this is the only idea of God; therefore the heathen gods are called 'not-gods.' [Note 1] They do not answer the idea.

3. (Not pleasant to inquire into the proofs; it is {290} an irreverence, therefore pass over it lightly [Note 2].) We are obliged to believe it, for else, was this world for ever? If not, who created it? and who created its Creator, etc.? Thus it is simplest, we cannot help believing in a God, nay, believing the most incomprehensible attribute, viz. that He had no beginning.

4. God must be all-perfect, for (1) He has made the world, and therefore must be more perfect than that which He made. He has given to it of His fulness, therefore is there wisdom, power, beauty, etc., in the world (think of the human soul)—then He much more so. This thought alone gives us an indefinitely high notion of God, considering the extent and wonders of creation.

5. Next, think that He created from nothing.

6. Go through His attributes.

7. The one singled out is 'Almighty,' and for two reasons: (1) Because we are to consider, not the time before creation, but creation and after; (2) because it is the Creed, which has reference to God's omnipotence.

8. 'Creator of heaven and earth'; (1) Creating from nothing; (2) number of attributes discovered from the material world; if there be beauty, He is beautiful; if Spirit, He Spirit, etc.

9. Creator of angels, men, things inanimate.

10. Proof of all this from above: (1) Two most {291} incomprehensible [mysteries] from the nature of the case—eternity a parte ante [i.e. before creation], and creation from nothing, and if these, what shall we not give to Him? (2) Idea in human mind, in conscience, and hence His moral attributes holy, just, ever vigilant, all-seeing. (3) The visible world and all the senses. (4) The variety of attributes which the world and the soul shows—wisdom, greatness, and minuteness, grace and beauty, comeliness, goodness. (5) Providence—therefore all good. Providence as shown in general [and] in our own life.

11. Doctrine of the Holy Trinity.

[September 4]
De Deo—II

1. Recapitulation—from the conscience and our personal history we have all the great doctrines about God which so much concern us, and which would suffice for our believing in Him, though there was no external world, viz. holiness, justice, omnipresence, ever-watchfulness, mercy, and future retribution.

2. About the argument from the external world, and why it is dangerous at this day [Note 3]; because it tells us nothing about sin; it [the world] was made before sin.

3. The attributes the external world adds—infinite power, wisdom, skill, etc.

4. Additions: (1) From the nature of the case one perfection implies another. (2) Eternity a parte ante, creation from nothing, etc., from the nature of the case. {292}

5. How is this faith, if it is gained thus by reasoning?—(explain—how reason goes a certain way to draw a conclusion)—that is not faith—(explain the process)—desire of the truth.

6. How faith is a completion through grace; this grace may be given to those who know not revelation; but if revelation comes in their way it will lead them to it.

7. This is why Catholics hold apostasy so wretched a thing—it is not the mere change of opinion, but a going against grace.

September 11
De Angelis—III

1. Angels the first work of God.

2. Different from the human race, as created all at once; not from a pair—myriads—almost an infinite number like the stars; nine ranks, yet there may be more unknown.

3. Immaterial—their appearing in human form—Raphael in [book of] Tobias.

4. Incorruptible; immortal in their nature.

5. Their knowledge; perfect from the first, not learning by discursus, first one thing, then another; knowing a thing wholly at once. They do not know the future—nor men's hearts, except from divine revelation. God alone knows these—(bad angels tempt by objecting evil or exciting the thoughts).

6. Created in grace. And first, What is grace?—something beyond nature. Nothing can love God {293} really and know Him, and attain to heaven, without a gift beyond itself.

7. The fall of the angels—pride—as sin of thought, for it was all the sin they could fall into, being spiritual natures. Pride is relying on oneself for happiness, not on God's grace; envy would follow, viz. against men. Their naturalia remanserunt integra—they lost (1) supernatural beatitude, intuitive vision of God [Note 4]; (2) justice and grace; (3) their intellect darkened, and their will confirmed in evil.

8. They range the earth and dwell in the air.

9. They do not properly possess the mind of the possessed except indirectly, by raising fantasies, etc. Of sinners and unbaptized, the soul is not possessed but ruled; hence even innocent persons are sometimes possessed.

10. Good angels were confirmed in grace.

11. Guardian angels for the faithful, and perhaps for the infideles et reprobati.

September 25
De Mundo Visibili et Brutis—IV

1. On the visible world, as described in Genesis; created by degrees.

2. Created good—in what sense?—relatively good. A better world conceivable; all creatures, as such, imperfect—grace perfects. He has not given His grace to all [creatures].

3. This seen especially in the phenomena of brute animals; how far they are like men—in structure {294} and make—remarkably like—one idea physically—for man is an animal and something [besides]. On the brute animals in contrast with men. They have not souls [Note 5].

4. First: They do not know they exist; they cannot reflect; they are like our minds in dreams or vacant vision or hearing; they don't anticipate death; they may see other brutes killed, but don't fear; no burying bodies—no despair of life, or suicide.

5. Second: Sensations—nothing more; they hear sounds, but do not know what is meant by them; they cannot speak.

6. Third: They act upon their sensations in a mechanical way, as by smell, etc.

7. Four: [They] eat and drink, etc., for the sake of eating and drinking, etc.—not in excess—still because mechanical.

8. Five: No abstract ideas—of justice, truth, etc.—no idea of duty.

9. Six: No governing power in their affections.

10. Seven: No perfectibility.

Hence they cannot sin, though they have impulses, etc., which in man are sin. Man is apt to argue that a thing is not sinful if it is natural, whereas it may be sinful in him, who has means to prevent it [Note 6].

October 2
De Gratia et Gratia Amissa—V

1. INTROD.—After brute animals we come to man. {295}

2. Man a compound being—how soul and body can be together a mystery [Note 7], and what follows, though strange, not so much so [i.e. not so mysterious]—compounded of body which aims at sensible good, and soul which aims at spiritual. Hence grace given that there might not be war.

3. This the state of Adam—original justice, grace—moreover, absence from death and the vestigia mortis.

4. Adam sinned; he could not have had a lighter trial. What was his punishment? A stripping of this grace, etc.

5. Enlarge on this as humbling man, [viz.] as a mere creation of God he is very imperfect—Pulvis es, etc. ('Dust thou art, and to dust thou shalt return']—[but now] he is not [as] in that state he would have been in had he not had grace. [Parable of] good Samaritan [the wounded man being typical of our race after the Fall]—evil of souls, four wounds—of body, death, and disease. As living things gasp and die under an exhausted receiver, though air is not part of their nature.

6. This state of man after the Fall—it is called original sin—and since Adam's sin is imputed, it shows itself in the above privations.

7. No one but has grace enough to save him—sufficient grace—but we cannot add up correctly many times running [Note 8]. Things needed not be yet are—efficacious grace.

8. Process of grace; actual grace, drawing a man on, one grace improving [improved upon?] {296} leads, de congruo, to another—so to contrition with desire of the Sacrament, which justifies, viz. habitual grace.

9. Children, habitual grace—but still actual grace is needed besides.

10. Grace of perseverance.

11. Our Lady without original sin.

12. The effect of this to humble us—creatures imperfect.

October 9
De Redemptione—VI

1. Sin leads to the doctrine about Christ: 'And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord … born of the Virgin Mary,' i.e. God coming in the flesh.

2. Consider the cumulus of sin—all the sins of every individual through centuries, and to the end of the world. The offence to God, how great!—infinite—though the malice finite.

3. God might have condemned all men—He might have pardoned all—and that without any satisfaction; but He determined to take a punishment equal to what their sins deserved. Now man could not pay this, and therefore Christ came, who was God.

4. God passed over the angels who fell. He looked lovingly upon man, His youngest creation, and, as great doctors teach [Note 9], He would have become {297} incarnate even if man had not fallen, though He then would not have suffered, viz. to show the glory of His Attributes in a created nature.

5. Christ's coming prophesied of through so many ages. Holy men looking out for Him.

6. Why His coming delayed—to show God's free decrees.

7. Jesus—(explain the word): (1) Saviour, Phil. ii. [9-10] [Note 10], Acts iii. [6] [Note 11],—the own name of a person always conveys tenderness and familiarity. (Saviour.) (2) Joshua His type—all saints have delighted in it [viz. the name Jesus].

8. Christ—Prophet, Priest, and King.

October 16
De Trinitate—VII

1. INTROD.—The mention of the Redeemer leads us to a great mystery.

2. It is to be expected that there are mysteries; we cannot tell [beforehand] what—and those which are are sure to surprise us, and we say: 'I expected some, but not this, for this is so strange.' [Note 12] {298}

3. A mystery is but a mark of infinity. Vide published discourse [Note 13].

4. We may be sure that every apparent explanation is a mistake, a heresy. We must begin by confessing it unintelligible.

5. Mystery of Trinity, briefly put.

6. On the analogy of the elements—published discourse.

October 23
De Filio Dei—VIII

1. INTROD.—On the divinity of our Lord.

2. God from God, Light from Light; analogies—the word, the sun, and

3. Passages of Scripture—Proverbs; wisdom—Isaias ix., John i., Phil. ii., Col. i., Heb. i.

4. Mistakes of Protestants [Note 14].

October 30
De Dominio Seu Regno Christi—IX

1. INTROD.—Our Lord in the first place God; but also, He has redeemed us with a price. {299}

2. Hence contrasted to this world, which is the (usurped) kingdom of Satan—god of this world.

3. Contrast the two, the mediatorial kingdom of Christ [and the kingdom of Satan] as in the Two Standards, beginning with John xvii.

4. An empire—(explain what an empire is)—Psalms ii., xliv., lxxi., lxxxvii., Isaias xliv., liv., lx., Apoc. xix.

5. (Contrast the two as in the Two Standards.) Prophecies—lamb and lion, Isaias xi. 6 [Note 15], Isaias ii. 2 [Note 16].

6. Spreading by meekness—unlike any other empire: strong in weakness.

7. Exemplified at this moment. State of the Pope.

8. Yet wars, etc. [Note 17] Yes, but the strength is not through war, etc. Explain therefore 'gathering of every kind' in but not of [the world].

9. Contrast the kingdom of Christ and Satan as in the Two Standards.

November 6
De Nativitate Christi ex Virgine—X

1. INTROD.—'Conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary.'

2. Predestination of the Blessed Virgin, even before the foresight of the Fall. {300}

3. Gen. iii. [15] [Note 18]—inimicitsas [enmities]; ipsa [she].

4. Parallel of Eve and Mary—this idea of a woman kept up through Scripture in types, though the relationship to the Shiloh [Gen. xlix. 10] is not always preserved—(1) Sara, Ishmael scoffing [at]; (2) Mary, Moses' sister; (3) the canticle of canticles.

5. Isaias vii. [14] [Note 19].

6. When our Lord came, perhaps no need of further notice; yet (for our Lady did not come forward at once into public view—e.g. in Catacombs) in prophecy, Apoc. xii., [she is prominent] to the end of time.

7. Particulars. Christ might have been born in the ordinary way, but other way more fitting—Immaculate Conception. [Her question to the angel], 'How shall this be?' [Her] vow of virginity—first who did so [i.e. made this vow]—why married; a true marriage.

8. Conceived of the Holy Ghost—all works belong to the Three Persons [of the Blessed Trinity]—but as wisdom is attributed to the Son, etc.

9. Christ had all grace from first—did not grow in grace.

10. [Our Lady suffered] no pain in child-bearing; Eve é contra; hence in representations of our Lady [before the manger] she is made kneeling, etc.

11. Ever virgin.

12. Mother of God—this to secure the doctrine of the Incarnation. Vide published Sermon [Note 20]. {301}

November 13
Passus et Crucifixus—XI

1. INTROD.—Sub Pontio Pilato.

2. This is introduced to mark the fulfilment of prophecy, which fixed the time.

3. Forty weeks—four empires—Genesis xlix.—fortunes of Judah—Herod—the Romans.

4. Hence the crucifixion instead of stoning. Thus other prophecies fulfilled.

5. On the 'fulness of time'—one (Roman) empire—universal peace—Greek philosophy—[heathen] religions worn out.

6. Another reason for 'Pontius Pilate,' viz. to prove the historical reality of our Lord's coming against Docetae, etc. Nay, in last century Dupuis with his three hundred years sooner.

7. On the contrary, God was man; God suffered, died, was buried, etc.; but not as God, but as man—in His human nature.

8. Still it was His will who is Highest to make Himself lowest. Indeed, it is in all its parts the most awful of mysteries—death of the cross: (1) what hanging now is, yet indefinitely worse—the ignominy of the position; as we fix noxious birds up; (2) nakedness; (3) contempt and mockery—His disciples leaving Him; (4) no part of the body without its suffering; (5) His delicate make more susceptible of pain.

9. Pains of His soul—the bloody sweat—no support from God or from sense of innocence; feeling of guilt; feeling of responsibility.

10. Yet the cross our triumph—sanctified by Him {302} who hung on it; predicted under the [figure of] brazen serpent. It is now a means of grace.

November 20
Mortuus, Sepultus—XII

1. INTROD.—'Dead and buried; He descended into hell.'

2. Dead. He died for our sins—but also because He came subject to the laws of our fallen nature; man, though not naturally immortal, was not to die. 'Dust thou art,' etc.—even our Blessed Lady, Enoch, Elias, and so Christ.

3. Hypostatic union preserved even in blood, which after the Resurrection was all gathered up.

4. Buried. This mentioned to show He was dead.

5. Hell eternal prison; purgatory; Limbo Patrum.

6. He went there, not as the others, but to triumph and take them out.

7. And so on the third day He rose again.

8. Even the instruments of the Passion a triumph; the cross—its meaning changed: He sanctified it. History of its finding.

9. The goodness of God not only in saving us, but in condescending to our weakness in religion; difficult to form spiritual ideas of God—the populace and [the] philosophers. Hence He has deigned [firstly] to take a body, [and secondly], with [it] a (personal] history [Note 21]. And this is perpetuated in the {303} two great devotions of the Blessed Sacrament and of our Lady.

November 27
Resurrexit et Ascendit—XIII

1. INTROD.—These articles are also mysteries in the Rosary. You should be familiar with the narrative of them in Scripture—(read it).

2. Our Lord remained forty days on earth—why forty? the flood ['was forty days upon the earth,' Gen. vii. 17]; [the Israelites] forty years in the wilderness; Moses (forty days) on the mountain; Elias ['walked in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights unto the mount of God,' 3 Kings xix. 8]; our Lord [fasting forty days] in the desert; hours of His death [forty hours in the tomb].

3. His state [after the Resurrection]—wonderful; He came and He went. His dwelling, perhaps though [some word has been omitted] on a terrestrial paradise where [were] the bodies of the saints who were raised with Him—especially [also] Enoch and Elias, who for their delay claimed the sight of Him.

4. What He taught—the constitution of the Church, the orders of the Hierarchy, the matter and form of the Sacraments.

5. At length He ascended at midday; He was taken down from the cross and buried in the evening— {304} rose again in the morning. This was not a proper place for His glorified body; He ascended of His own power as God and as man. [See] Catechismus Romanus.

6. 'Sitteth on the right hand'—(explain).

7. There He sits as our one Mediator and Intercessor—quote Rom. viii. 34 [Note 22], Heb. vii. [24-25] [Note 23]. In what His intercession consists—in presenting His human nature.

8. Difference between [His and the] Blessed Virgin's intercession; He is God; she is powerful through prayer; hence we do not say to Him, Ora pro nobis.

9. Also He ascended to fix our minds on heaven in love; to exercise our faith in One who is absent; to give ground for our hope.

10. Conclusion of foregoing.

December 4
Inde Venturus Est, etc.—XIV

1. INTROD.—['Thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.']

2. Particular judgment—some think the soul is not taken up to Christ literally, for it [i.e. this] is introducing the wicked into heaven, but only intellectually. {305}

3. The soul of the just goes to purgatory, unless a Saint; of the sinner to hell.

4. General judgment at the end of the world: it will come suddenly.

5. Signs previous, though unheeded then.

6. Preaching of Gospel all over the earth; now this has in great measure been done.

7. Apostasy—love of many waxing cold—1 Tim. iv. [l] [Note 24], 2 Tim. iii. [1-2] [Note 25].

8. Antichrist, 2 Thess. ii. [3] [Note 26].

9. Fire burning up all things, and becoming the purgatory of the living just—[general] resurrection.

10. The judgment—reasons for it; first, to show the full consequences of good and evil in individuals; to clear the just; to bring shame to the wicked. Wisdom iv.

11. Secondly, to justify God—Ps. lxxii. 16-17 [Note 27], Ps. xlix [Note 28].

12. Matt. xxv. [32] [Note 29], division of good and bad, as if the separation had already been made.

13. No venial sins, only mortal sins [judged] at last judgment. {306}

14. Necessity of confessing sins now, that we may not have to confess them then.

December 11
Et in Spiritum Sactum—XV

On the condescension of the Holy Ghost. Creation implies ministration, and is the beginning of mysteries. It passes the line, and other mysteries are but its continuation.

December 18
Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam—XVI

On the Church as means of grace—the seven sacraments, etc. On the principle of communication of merits.

January 4, 1850
Remissionem Peccatorum—XVII

1. Forgiveness of sin the proclamation of the Gospel—and a new idea. It was reminding men of what was necessary for them, which in the world they forget. Mortal sin, how great an evil! hence to forgive as great an act as to create or raise the dead.

2. The great boon—because not everywhere. Grace everywhere, not forgiveness, though in order to forgiveness: forgiveness on contrition.

3. Forgiveness through Christ (first of all created {307} natures) when on earth, through the Church; first through baptism, next through penance (no sin the Church cannot remit). These two [Baptism and Penance] the Sacramenta mortuorum.

January 8
Carnis Resurrectionem—XVIII

1. On mysteries without number all through revealed religion—[our] ignorance how things are. The Creed begins with mystery, with mystery it ends. Resurrection of the body.

2. Matter, it would seem, could not be made spiritual (ancient philosophers) [Note 30]—apparently the means of temptation; cause of ignorance, of death, etc.; retards the soul.

3. Heathen philosophers of old time called the body a prison, etc., as if the soul was pure; they made much of the soul; hence to say the body was to be raised, to them a shocking doctrine, Acts xvii.

4. And again, they thought sins of the flesh no {308} harm, because the flesh; it disgusted them to [be told] the body should rise again, for it implied the need of self-discipline and mortification—the body being worth something.

5. But in truth all, soul as well as body, imperfect—all creation imperfect; the grace which can make the soul perfect makes the body [perfect] too.

6. Christianity, then, raises the body—Incarnation—Mary—relics of martyrs.

7. Every one will rise with his own body—the same body—

8. With all their members perfect, and all defects removed;

9. Yet so far the same that the martyrs will have their scars.

10. Immortal.

11. Four properties [of the risen body]—impassibility, brightness (not the same to all), agility, subtility.

12. Reflection upon glorified bodies.

January 11
Vitam Eternam—XIX

1. INTROD.—The Creed begins with God, it ends with ourselves; the last articles have reference to us.

2. Eternal life. Life means more than existence, for the lost live.

3. It means blessedness or beatitude; and this is called life, because there is no word which can fitly describe it; so we must use such words as occur. {309}

4. By blessedness is meant our greatest good, and this from the nature of man can be nothing temporal, but must be something eternal. If a man thought his happiness to end, or were not sure, he would not be happy.

5. It consists in seeing God; not only seeing His glory, or a likeness of Him, but Himself. Since it is His nature or essence which will be seen, no likeness will do, for no likeness is there of His essence.

6. It is seen by means of the lumen gloriae, which raises the soul above itself—'In Thy light shall we see light.' It is by an immediate union to God, and our intellect is raised above itself in order to it.

7. This light of glory raises the soul above itself. It [the soul] is what it is, but it is bathed and flooded with a heavenly light; it puts on a divine form, so that men are called gods. A red-hot iron, etc.

8. Such is essential blessedness—consisting in the possession of God. The soul ever sees God present, wherever it is—the rapturous nature of this privilege. We (most men) know so little of intellectual joys here, that few illustrations can be given. Most intense, yet continuous. (Happiness in itself—happiness of convalescence—happiness of tears; soothing, etc.—happiness of coming before the Blessed Sacrament—not happiness merely of success, etc., as on earth, i.e. of having gained, at possessing—saints' raptures.)

9. So much so that the soul could dispense with everything else—the blessed would not want friends from the earth. Each could well bear to lose the memory of everything else for God. {310}

10. But God has added these additions: all the blessed will see each other, and rejoice in each other's glory,

11. And the honour of each other.

12. The glories of the heavenly palace.

13. Let this thought comfort us in the troubles of this life, and the prospect of purgatory.

January 3, 1858 (Octave of St. John)
[Christian Knowledge]

1. Christian knowledge is made up of four parts—of the Creed, John iii. 11, of the doctrine of the Sacraments, Acts i. 3, of the Ten Commandments, Matt. xxii. 37, and of prayer, Luke xi. 1. And these four make up the teaching which is called the Catechism.

2. We are accustomed to think the Catechism belongs to children only, and think it does not concern grown men and women—Catechumens—but this is not so. The Council of Trent appointed a Catechismus ad Parochos.

3. This is shown in the very name catechism, from [katechein], to ring in the ears again and again.

4. There is great danger of our knowing only part of what God has revealed, and danger of our forgetting what we know. Therefore it is necessary, again and again.

5. Feeling all this deeply, I have resolved, opitulante Deo, to begin a set of strictly catechetical lectures in the Mass on Sundays, viz. the four parts above mentioned. {311}

6. I know how careful our Fathers are in bringing before you the truths of revelation. I know how you have profited by their teaching. But there is the danger that some or other of the truths should be omitted unless there is some system of catechising, catechetical instruction, at least from time to time. You may hear one thing three or four times and another not even once. You may know a great deal on some subjects, more than Catholics ordinarily do, and not enough on others.

7. St. Paul said he had taught all the counsel of God. It is as necessary to know all our duty as to practise it all; and we cannot practise it all without knowing it. What we should aim at is knowing all and doing all.

8. In this consists perfection. Perfection does not lie in heroic deeds, or in great fervour, or in anything extraordinary—many, even good men, are unequal—but in consistency. This is what old Catholics have when good, in opposition to converts, and therefore this congregation needs it especially.

9. And so Christian knowledge is not the knowing about saints or about devotions and the like, though all this is excellent, but in knowing the four things above.

10. On the Catechism as an instrument of con­verting Protestants.

January 10
[The Creed]

1. The Creed begins with the word from which the name creed is taken, credo, I believe. Observe {312} it is 'I believe,' not 'I conjecture,' 'I am of opinion,' 'I know,' but 'I believe.'

2. There are many things which we 'conjecture,' 'expect,' 'reckon,' or 'guess,' e.g. the future generally, the weather, the state of trade, our own prospects, health, fortune, etc., and we have surmises and suspicions about who are our friends, who our enemies, and we put no great confidence in such guesses, because we find we are often wrong. This is not what we mean when in the Creed we say 'I believe.'

3. There are many things we have opinions about, and strong opinions, and with very little doubt or fear, e.g. what we have learned by long experience of life. Experience is all in all to many men—to the farmer, to the physician, to the navigator, the politician, and to all men—hence it is that we trust the old; they may not be always right, but still their experience gives them a right to speak. Opinions may be trusted, but yet they are not infallibly certain, because sometimes men change their opinions. This, then, is not what is meant by 'I believe.'

4. There are many things we know, e.g. by our senses, by common sense, by reason. Thus we know what we see with our eyes—all that is round about us, the world, the sky, the earth, etc. And by common sense and reason that two and two make four, all the points of moral conduct, the difference of virtue and vice, conscience, etc.; [in such matters] there is no doubt or fear, but certainty. But this is not 'I believe.'

5. What, then, is 'I believe'? It is at first sight {313} as uncertain, doubtful, as any of them, a conjecture, but really more certain than [mere] knowledge. To believe is to accept as true what we are told. What more weak, for people are continually taken in? Why then strong? Because it is God's word—(enlarge on this: 'Let God be true, and every man a liar' [Note 31])—through the Church.

6. It comes from a divine grace.

7. Exhortation to believe against appearances, and to pray for faith.

January 17

1. Last week I spoke of faith as being acceptance of the word of God as declared by the Church, and since God is not seen, it is by grace; hence Eph. ii. 8, 'For by grace you are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God'; and Heb. xi. 6, 'But without faith it is impossible to please God. For he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and is a rewarder to them that seek him.'

2. Now it may be objected that these two—God and recompense—can be known by nature without grace—see Romans vii. I answer (1) With great difficulty and many obstacles from passion, etc. (2) They are not enough—St. Peter in Acts iv. 10-12 [Note 32]; {314} our Lord Himself, John xvii. 3 [Note 33]; or John iii. 16 [Note 34]; the Baptist, John iii. 36 [Note 35]; St. John the evangelist, John i. 10-12 [Note 36]; St. Paul, Acts xvi. 31 [Note 37]; grace, 1 Cor. xii. 3 [Note 38].

3. Now these truths [spoken of in the texts just referred to] are not known by nature, but by God's word—(illustrate). By natural reason we know many wonderful things—the sciences—all those wonderful things of this day—inventions, historical researches, antiquities dug up from the earth, knowledge of the stars, etc., etc.—but not all the knowledge of men could bring us one step nearer to the knowledge of those things which concern our salvation. These are only known by revelation, or by the express word of God.

4. This is what is called revelation, because the veil taken off, or, in other words, by the express word of God.

5. The word of God—(explain)—two kinds; Scripture and Tradition.

6. This why faith is necessary. And even what we could know by nature (God and recompense), we must receive on faith. {315}

7. EXHORTATION.—'Let God be true, and every man a liar.' One man thinks one thing difficult, another another.

January 24

1. I used last week the word revelation in connection with faith. And now I am going to explain more exactly what it is, and why it is necessary.

2. Revelation is necessary, faith is necessary, on account of our ignorance, which is one of the four wounds of human nature.

3. Now does it not seem wonderful—but so it is—that we may know so much of so many things, but so little of the things of God? Contrast human knowledge and religious ignorance—so many different opinions.

4. Hence, if we are to know anything of God, it must be quite in a different way, viz. by His expressing—speaking to us, or by His word—the word of God—and His word is revelation. For revelation means taking a veil away. (Illustrate Isa. xxvi., 2 Cor. iii.—veil over their heads; veil on Moses' face.) Still a veil, as in Blessed Sacrament—mysteries. Still, whatever we know of unseen things is by the revealing word of God. Hence by faith, not by sight, hearing by the word of God.

5. Faith, then, receives the revealing word of God through the Church.

6. Now what does the word of God say? through what and when does it speak?—through the Church, in two ways—written Scripture, unwritten tradition. {316}

7. Enter into Scripture and tradition; (1) parts of Scripture; (2) parts of tradition.

8. All things we receive by faith: not only Scripture, or only tradition, but both, for there is not a word of Scripture, whether of prophet, evangelist, etc., nor of tradition, which is not the voice or word of the Church—Heb. i. 1.

9. Embrace whatever God reveals as soon as you know that it is revealed.

January 31

1. I have now explained what is meant by the word of God, by revelation, and by faith, and why they are necessary.

2. There is great correspondence between things of the body and of the soul. We cannot see without light; and even with light we need eyes, and in the dark we grope our way. Now by nature our souls are in darkness, ignorance, etc. Thus you see how it is there is need of God's word, revelation, and faith.

3. And here you see the reason of a solemn declaration, 'Without which there is no one can be saved.' We are going a journey, etc.

4. Our Lord's words, John iii. 18 [Note 39].

5. And still more if they refuse light, John iii. 19 [Note 40].

6. This is one great reason why the light of faith is necessary, because we are so ignorant. {317}

7. Now you will say, 'Is ignorance the fault of men in general? if so, how? if not, why are they punished with the loss of salvation?'

8. No one is punished except for his own fault. No one is punished except for rejecting light. God gives light all over the earth—enough to make men advance forward.

9. Explain: from one grace to another, from one step to another—prayer.

10. And thus those who are in a great deal of ignorance may be saved if they are doing their best, and their ignorance invincible.

11. Heathen, heretics (material), may have divine faith.

12. Who these are is secret. All we know is about ourselves. Application to ourselves.

February 7
[Apostles' Creed—I]

1. Now I have explained what is meant by the word of God, by revelation, by faith. Now after the preliminaries we come to the Creed. You must not mind my saying the same thing over and over again—[katechesis].

2. The Creed, then, since it is received by faith, must be revealed doctrine; so it is.

3. Next it is called Apostles'. Why? force of the word—because nothing can be of faith, nothing is revealed, except what comes from His apostles. No revelation since—once for all—as sacrifice, etc.

4. Not the whole of the apostles' doctrine, but a certain portion. {318}

5. Why not the whole? Because it is impossible; the Church alone can tell us the whole; it is [an illegible word here]. We do not for certain know till the Church tells, e.g. Immaculate Conception.

6. Are we not bound to believe the whole? Yes, with implicit faith—(explain).

7. But what is put down in the Creed is definite and simple, e.g. first into three, then into twelve.

8. So much, because fundamental; for teaching.

9. Because easy of memory.

10. Because intelligible for strangers who ask about it as a mark of unity.

11. So the cross—Jesus. Simple and intelligible. 'Christian is my name, Catholic my surname.'

February 21

1. I said last that the Creed did not contain all that we had to believe, but certain portions, and this is put into our hands for various reasons.

2. First, as a badge of what our religion is: 'Christian is my name, Catholic my surname.' The sign of the cross—so the Creed.

3. Next, as what is fundamental—which 'infants in grace know,' 'other foundation,' etc. 'No one can say Jesus is the Lord,' etc. Disciplina arcani.

4. Thirdly, as being easy of memory, being only a few clauses, a few words in each.

5. Three chief parts—twelve articles—(go through them).

6. As to the twelve articles, there was a belief {319} that each apostle gave an article—thence called Apostles' Creed; but not so, but, as I said last time, because it contains apostolic doctrine.

7. And hence there were originally lesser variations in the Creed in various parts of the Church, in various countries. Rites and ceremonies vary, and though the faith never varies, the expression of it may. We have an instance of this in the Creed of the Mass. (Exemplify.)

8. Each Church, then, had its own Creed, the same except in few words, or a few articles put in or out. The Creed which has remained and which we use as the Apostles' Creed is the Creed always used in Rome. Saying it at the Confessional of St. Peter.

9. Another thing to be said about the Apostles' Creed: the Nicene has additions because of heresies—Consubstantial, etc.; the Apostles' Creed that of the Church of Rome, where heresy never was.

10. But lest the Creed should grow too large, the Council of Ephesus determined that it should not be added to, though heresies arose; hence Theotokos not introduced.

February 28
[First Article of the Creed]

1. I have been many weeks engaged in explaining what the Creed is, what is the need of it, and similar questions. Now then at length we proceed to consider what it contains.

2. The first article begins, 'I believe in God,' or, as in the Nicene, 'I believe in one God.' {320}

3. Explain what we mean by God, viz. the one being of beings, self-dependent, etc., all-powerful, could create infinite worlds, each more beautiful than the one before, with all other infinite attributes; yet what we know of Him is infinitely less than what we do not know.

4. Here, then, you see the Creed opens in mystery, and what is remarkable, though it is a point of faith, it is also a point of reason. Hence the heathen philosopher asked one, two, four, eight, etc., days to determine about God. Then in the Mass—tremunt potestates—the name of God not pronounced by the Jews. It is what every child understands, who prays to God, as far as the highest intellect.

5. Here you see what is meant by saying that faith is against reason, viz. above, because reason itself comes to truths which it cannot comprehend.

6. There is no article in the whole Catholic faith more mysterious than this, which is the elementary one—nay, which is the belief of nature, too, without grace, which Protestants hold.

March 7
[Creed, First Article Continued]

1. On the awful and incomprehensible nature of Almighty God. The sun a poor type of it, which we cannot gaze on.

2. Hence the Jews never named the name of God. Hence in the Mass it is said tremunt potestates.

3. Hence the Seraphim. Moses at the burning bush; Apoc. i. 13, 17.

4. This will lead us to show how difficult it is {321} to speak of Him without contradictions. He is full of mystery.

5. Enumerate the mysteries contained in it. (1) No beginning; (2) eternity by Himself; (3) then a Creator after an eternity; (4) out of nothing; (5) ever working though ever at rest; (6) everywhere as fully as if in one place, yet without parts; (7) prescience; (8) knowledge of our hearts; (9) infinitely merciful and just; (10) all-powerful yet blasphemed, etc.; (11) all-loving and good, yet allowing sin; (12) infinite, yet personal.

6. This prepares us for those mysteries which are of faith—the Holy Trinity.

7. As attributes in the divine nature which are all separate, yet all one, so there is a greater and higher mystery still, viz. three persons.

8. The Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost, each entirely the one selfsame God, as if the others were not.

9. Still more mysterious, because we have nothing like it on earth.

10. We should glory, not stumble, at mysteries. All religions profess to believe in, to meditate on, Almighty God, but,

11. How few do so, else the whole world would become Catholic. The world generally, though they say they believe in God, as little believes as it believes in Catholicism.

This also gave matter for a lecture for March 21:

1. The world full of mystery.

2. Much more the Maker of the World.

3. Much more the God not of reason merely, but of revelation ... Holy Trinity. {322}

May 8, 1859 (Sunday afternoon lectures)

INTROD.—I cannot determine what I shall lecture on till I know who will come, for the speaker speaks according to the hearers; to speak for speaking' sake is mere human eloquence, and not practical, and this St. Philip opposed especially. His Fathers only converse, not preach.

However, so much is certain, that all hearers come to learn; learning implies knowledge as its object. There are two kinds of knowledge, natural and supernatural. I shall be sure to lecture on either natural or supernatural knowledge. One word more, and that for the sake of spiritual profit, not mere curiosity.

May 15

1. INTROD.—I said that there were two kinds of religious knowledge.

2. And each is gained in its own way. Natural by sight and reason, supernatural by faith.

3. Reason of distinction, because we cannot learn what is above nature except by faith. On natural religion by sight and reason.

4. Natural religion is from God, sight and reason are from God. They are good as far as they go. They do for this world, but they never can get us to heaven.

5. Now the great bulk of mankind live merely by sight and reason; their religion is natural religion.

6. (Here we have the comments of fact upon the 'narrow way.') {323}

7. Describe how men live by sense and reason, natural good feeling, good sense, honesty, uprightness, manliness. If asked their opinion of any thing, act, or opinion or event, they will judge merely by their common sense; then they go on to supernatural religion, and they still judge by reason, and so differ from each other.

8. And they will agree in some points with the others, not in others, hence private judgment.

9. Now I appeal to any one, if this is not the religion of most people. They would profess they only go by reason. The bulk of men live and die without faith. The notion of going by simple faith does not enter into their mind.

10. Nay, though they profess to go by Scripture yet when there is anything they don't like, they explain it away.

11. Contrast faith and everything by faith.

12. Hence faith the foundation.

May 22

1. INTROD.—I shall make this a recapitulation of the last. It is that the great majority of revealed religion is faith, whilst other religions, the religions of man, go by reason and conscience only.

2. It must be so, for faith is the correlative of revelation, faith in God's words and promises.

3. Natural men may be good fathers, gentle, simple, etc., and good soldiers, good citizens, great and good statesmen, good kings.

4. Now first, the religion of nature, or of good {324} persons, who are not Catholics. Contrasted with faith, they are benevolent, e.g., but not simply because God tells them, but because their disposition carries them that way; they don't think of getting a reward. Now contrast Tobias—faith in God's word.

5. Great patriot and soldier—Nehemias iv. 9, v. 19, xiii. 14.

6. Even though they are religious men, their belief is only a matter of opinion. Thus Protestants, saying that they may hold what they please; they are amazed when you say that you are certain; thus they have not the first principle of faith.

7. Now every one who lives with no higher religion than this comes short of eternal life. We may as well fly up to the sky as expect by these natural powers and exercises to get to heaven, because faith is away.

8. Now all acceptable religion is because God has revealed this or that. We are all apt to reason, and there is nothing wrong in reason, so that we do not oppose faith; but the great thing is to make an act of faith, whatever we do; to say, I believe this or that or the other on God's word—even in those things which we might know by nature,

9. Though not denying that those who are not Catholics may have this divine faith; but it is only as they have it that they have any chance of salvation.

Or rather thus:

1. INTROD.—Importance of making act of faith. There are two things in religion—doctrines to be accepted and commands to be obeyed; doctrines {325} may be taken by reason, commands by conscience. We must take both not by reason or conscience, but by FAITH.

2. Because faith must be the foundation of everything, and unless we begin with it, nothing is acceptable.

3. God has spoken—Rom. x. 17; 1 Thess. ii. 13. There are many things which we know by nature. God has said these over again, these and many new things in Revelation, but in order that they should be acceptable, we must accept on faith even those things which we know by nature. Whether reason is for, or scruples at doctrines, we must take them on faith.

4. E.g. the being of a God, immortality of the soul, future judgment, etc.

5. And thus we learn to take others also on faith, as the word of God. God has spoken.

6. INSTANCES.—Tobias, not rich, a benevolent man, but with faith.

7. Job, rich, abundant alms, etc.

8. Nehemias, a statesman, patriot, commander.

9. Esau, the instance of a man without faith, contrasted with Jacob, who had.

10. OBJECTION.—Protestants often good and religious, and seem really to live by faith.

11. Distinguo. Do they really go by faith, not by private judgment? Do they really believe God has spoken this or that definite doctrine or command, or do they believe doctrines merely so far as reason teaches them, and commands as far as conscience?

12. But if so, very well, invincible ignorance (draw out). {326}

May 29

1. I have said, nothing without faith as its foundation—Heb. xi. 6 [Note 41], Eph. ii. 8 [Note 42]; faith implies an external message—Rom. x. 14 [Note 43], 1 Thess. ii. 13 [Note 44].

2. Yet, as I said, it is impossible to go into the world without seeing that the idea of taking one's doctrine from an external authority does not enter into their minds. It is always 'I think.' This is what is meant by private judgment—though Scripture, yet they put their own sense on Scripture; they take these books, reject those, etc.

3. This is a most fearful consideration, considering we are saved by faith. And observe, it is quite independent of the question of what is the true doctrine, what is the true Church. You see most men do not GO THE RIGHT WAY. It is a previous question. They don't go the way of faith. From this it is plain, to go no further, that none but Catholics are in the right way, because they alone go by faith.

4. Now in this awful prospect the question arises, Does no one else go by faith? Does no Protestant go by faith? {327}

5. We can only answer by what we see. Well, they profess not to go by faith. If they do go by faith, at least they do not know it. Alas, it does seem as if we must say that the majority do not go by faith.

6. Do any? I trust they do. I trust there is a remnant all over the world who do go by faith, and who so far are in the way of salvation, or rather, towards salvation. And in explanation how this is, I shall clear my meaning up more fully.

7. But first I shall answer an objection, viz. If they go by faith, why do they not join the Catholic Church, in which alone God speaks? It is said, 'My sheep hear My voice.' I answer, they are out of the hearing of the Catholic Church, and therefore are in what is called invincible ignorance.

8. Now I will describe the state of such persons all the world over. Our Lord died for all, grace is given to all. Most men seem to profit nothing at all by it, but there are those who profit, e.g.

9. Conscience—there are two ways of regarding conscience; one as a mere sort of sense of propriety, a taste teaching us to do this or that, the other as the echo of God's voice. Now all depends on this distinction—the first way is not of faith, and the second is of faith.

10. Characteristics of the first way—connected with pride. The proud will call the other kind superstitious. A person makes himself his own centre. He says, I shall hold just what seems to me, what my moral sense tells me, etc. The other considers it the voice of God, obeys it as such, a call to look out for more light. {328}

11. Development of the idea of God, of faith in God, and of the feeling of the necessity of God's speaking in order to their salvation.

12. Hence to the evidences—the visible things of God, etc., etc.—history, providences, experiences.

13. A person may be a heathen—Mahometan, etc., etc.—and yet have this real faith in God, and so far he is on the way towards salvation. Their ignorance is involuntary and invincible, i.e. not their fault.

14. On being led on. Thus heathens, like the wise men, led into truth—the Ethiopians to Judaism; Abimelech's dream; Pharaoh's dreams. Job iv., spirit [Note 45]; Job a just man. Magi, Ethiopians, the [eusebeis] in the Acts. Means which the Almighty used before the coming of Christ.

N.B.—As just men existed before Christ came, why not at a distance from the Church? for what the former is of time, so just men among the heathen is of space.

15. And thus St. Thomas said, 'An angel will speak from heaven rather than a soul fail.' On Christ's sheep hearing His voice; thus it is a test whether persons come on towards the Church when they know about it; invincible ignorance the only excuse. On the difference between death overtaking the shily-shallying, who are not seeking, and on the earnest inquirer in invincible ignorance dying before he is a Catholic.

16. Case of Dr. A—in his dreamy state, before death learning the truth. {329}

N.B.—Principles in the above.

1. It is part of the same mystery why death comes before inquirers are led into the truth, now as of old, for both depend on the parallel mystery why (1) our Lord did not come from the beginning of the world; (2) why the Gospel is not preached all over the earth. There is [i.e. would have been] nothing stranger in the Ethiopian dying before Philip came to him, than in a Jew of Solomon's day dying before the Gospel was preached; neither had baptism.

2. What is faith before the revealed dogma is known, is superstition after, for God has now superseded the natural ways of seeking Him.

3. 'My sheep hear Me.' Therefore it is only when there is invincible ignorance that this can be—being led on into the Church is the test.

July 3

1. INTROD.—What I have been saying is this, that even heathen (all men) to enter upon the road that leads to heaven, must live by faith; by faith even as to those things which they know by reason.

2. And this is so, because God would take us out of ourselves and make us depend on Him—not make ourselves our own centre; we must make God our centre.

3. Analogy of Nature—solar system, monarchy in society, etc. Yet this difference, that in this world there are many ranks, etc., intermediate {330} between the centre and ourselves, but as to religion, we every one depend on one centre alone—God.

4. The wishing to have ourselves our own centre is pride, the sin of Satan. (Enlarge on it.)

5. Instances of faith, inquiry, doubt, a want of faith. (1) Inquiry—the child Samuel. (2) Nobleman in 4 Kings vii., who would not believe Eliseus; unbelief of St. Thomas. (3) Zachary; doubt, and Nicodemus. (4) Our Lady's and St. Paul's faith. A fifth state, weak faith of Gideon: 'Lord, I believe.' [Note 46].

August 14
On Love

1. INTROD.—(1) On Love as not external to the Church (i.e. state of grace) as faith and hope may be. (2) As not in those who fall from grace, while faith and hope remain. As not the love of concupiscence or hope, nor gratitude, its object being the beauty of God.

Now I shall show how love comes after faith, through a distinct grace. Younger sons in Scripture—Jacob, not Esau—vide St. Francis de Sales. {331}

2. On love. Remains of love in nature, as shown by the drawings of the heart, by people seeking comfort in religion, in trouble; and this left in order that grace may work with nature, not against nature, when it works. Also as a sort of claim of God upon us, as if He marked us as His property.

On love being produced from faith through meditation.

3. By nature [man] has far more to do with other attributes of God—fear, etc., etc. For instance, I have said that conscience is the means of faith, but it teaches justice principally, which is the object of fear, not of love. Again, though there is great goodness in God's providence, yet in action the marks of particular providence not so obvious.

4. But it is the objects of Christian faith which cause love. Go through them minutely. At first sight original sin might be a doctrine which drives us from God. O felix culpa, atonement—much more still particular election. Then Mass and the Holy Eucharist, etc. Faith, you see, is the thing, or the only thing necessary as a means of love.

5. Faith leads to love through meditation. The things of faith, e.g. the whole doctrine of election is hard, but when once embraced it has its reward in its powers of kindling love.

Doctrine of election: (1) This little globe out of the whole world; (2) not angels but men chosen; (3) Old Testament elections, the younger for the older; (4) we chosen out of the world to be Catholics.

6. And though this in the first place gratitude, not pure love, yet, since all God's dealings to us {332} are so admirable and glorious, love is kindled at the same time.

7. All this is summed up, especially in the Gospels, so that as the Bible is the instrument of hope, so is the Gospels of love.

June 3, 1860

I conceive that St. Thomas means that the dona Spiritus Sancti have the same relation to the motions of grace towards the supernatural end of man which moral virtue has to the motions of reason towards the natural end. They dispose the mind that it may be well moved by the Holy Ghost, as the virtues perfect the appetite that it may be well moved by reason. Also that he means by wisdom and understanding two speculative gifts, the latter apprehension, the former judgment, speculative apprehension or understanding being what Doyle's Catechism calls knowledge (comprehension) of mysteries, and speculative understanding or wisdom, the perfect appreciation (comprehension, grasp) of all subjects of religion, though Doyle calls it a gift of directing our whole lives and actions to God's honour.

By knowledge and counsel, two practical gifts—knowledge being a judicium, viz. an insight into duty generally, though Doyle says, 'a gift by which we know, etc., the will of God'; and counsel being an apprehensio, or what Doyle calls 'a gift by which we discover the grounds of the duty,' etc. {333}

I should say, by which we take in all things correctly as they are.

Wisdom—the estimation of all things rightly with reference to our end.

Understanding—knowledge, mysteries.

Knowledge—knowledge of means for our spiritual welfare.

Council—or prudence, judging of things rightly.

Piety or godliness—directs appetitus in alterum.

Fortitude—against fear of world, etc.

Fear—against concupiscence.

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1. Jer. ii. 11; ib. v. 7.
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2. He would also have felt it superfluous in 1849 'to inquire into proofs.' 'Whatever my anxiety may be about the future generation, I trust I need at present have none in insisting, before a congregation, however mixed, on the mysteries or difficulties which attach to the doctrine of God's existence,' etc.—Discourses to Mixed Congregations, p. 265.
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3. See Note 19, pp. 343-4.
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4. I.e. in prospect.
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5. He is using the word soul in the popular sense.
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6. Cp. Discourses to Mixed Congregations, p. 149.
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7. Cp. Parochial and Plain Sermons, vol. iv. p. 283.
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8. See Discourses to Mixed Congregations, pp. 128-9.
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9. Though by no means generally: see Sermons to Mixed Congregations, p. 321 note.
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10. 'For which cause God also hath exalted him, and hath given him a name which is above all names: that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow,' etc.
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11. 'In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth arise and walk.'
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12. 'I consider that this mysteriousness is, as far as it proves anything, a recommendation of the doctrine. I do not say that it is true because it is mysterious; but that if it be true, it cannot help being mysterious. It would be strange, indeed, as has often been urged in argument, if any doctrine concerning God's infinite and eternal Nature were not mysterious. It would even be an objection to any professed doctrine concerning His Nature, if it were not mysterious.'—Parochial Sermons, vol. vi., 'Faith without Demonstration.'
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13. 'The outward exhibition of infinitude is mystery; and the mysteries of nature and grace are nothing else than the mode in which His infinitude encounters us and is brought home to our minds,' etc.—Discourses to Mixed Congregations, p. 309.
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14. Ib. pp. 346 ff.
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15. 'The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; the calf and the lion and the sheep shall lie down together; and a little child shall lead them.'
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16. 'And in the last days the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be prepared on the top of the mountains,' etc.
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17. Probably in reference to the crusades, and perhaps to the military defence of the Papal states.
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18. 'I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed; she shall crush thy head,' etc.
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19. 'Behold, a virgin shall conceive,' etc.
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20. 'The Glories of Mary,' etc., in Discourses to Mixed Congregations.
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21. 'While, then, Natural Religion was not without provision for all the deepest and truest religious feelings, yet presenting no tangible history of the Deity, no points of His personal character (if we may so speak without irreverence), it wanted that most efficient incentive to all action, a starting or rallying point,—an object on which the affections could be placed, and the energies concentrated.'—Oxford University Sermons, p. 23. The italics are our own.
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22. 'Christ Jesus that died, yea, that is risen also again, who is at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.'
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23. 'But this, for that he continueth for ever, hath an everlasting priesthood. Whereby he is also able to save for ever them that come to God by him, always living to make intercession for us.'
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24. 'Now the Spirit manifestly saith, that in the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error,' etc.
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25. 'Know also this, that in the last days shall come dangerous times. Men shall be lovers of themselves,' etc.
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26. 'And then that wicked one shall be revealed,' etc.
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27. 'I studied that I might know this thing. It is a labour in my sight; until I go into the sanctuary of God, and understand concerning their last ends.'
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28. 'Gather ye together his saints to him ... and the heavens shall declare his justice.'
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29. 'And all nations shall be gathered together before him: and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats.'
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30. 'Among the wise men of the heathen, as I have said, it was usual to speak slightingly and contemptuously of the mortal body; they knew no better. They thought it scarcely a part of their real selves, and fancied they should be in a better condition without it. Nay, they considered it to be the cause of their sinning; as if the soul of man were pure, and the material body were gross, and defiled the soul. We have been taught the truth, viz. that sin is a disease of our minds, of ourselves; and that the whole of us, not body alone, but soul and body, is naturally corrupt, and that Christ has redeemed and cleansed whatever we are, sinful soul and body. Accordingly their chief hope in death was the notion that they should be rid of the body.'—Parochial Sermons, vol. i. p. 276, 'The Resurrection of the Body.'
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31. Rom. iii. 4.
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32. 'Be it known to you all ... that by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ... even by him this man standeth before you whole ... There is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved.'
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33. 'Now this is eternal life, that they may know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.'
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34. 'God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him may not perish, but may have life everlasting.'
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35. 'He that believeth in the Son hath life everlasting: but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life.'
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36. 'He was in the world, and the world knew him not ... But as many as received him, he gave them power to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name.'
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37. 'But they [Paul and Silas] said, Believe in the Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.'
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38. 'No one can say the Lord Jesus, but by the Holy Ghost.'
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39. 'He that believeth in him is not judged. But he that doth not believe is already judged: because he believeth not in the name of the only begotten Son of God.'
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40. 'And this is the judgment: because the light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than the light: for their works were evil.'
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41. 'But without faith it is impossible to please God.'
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42. 'For by grace you are saved through faith.'
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43. 'How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? or how shall they believe him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they bear without a preacher?'
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44. 'When you received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men,' etc.
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45. 'And when a spirit passed before me,' etc.
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46. This section might be rewritten thus:—Instances of (1) inquiry—the child Samuel ['Speak Lord,' etc.]; (2) want of faith—the nobleman who would not believe Eliseus, 4 Kings vii. ['If the Lord should make flood-gates in heaven, can that possibly be which thou sayest'], and the unbelief of St. Thomas; (3) doubt—Zachary [Luke i. 18], and Nicodemus [John iii.]; (4) faith—our Lady's and St. Paul's faith. A fifth state, weak faith, as in the case of Gideon [Judges vi. 36-40]. and the father of the boy possessed by the dumb spirit—'Lord I do believe; help my unbelief' [Mark ix. 24].
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Newman Reader — Works of John Henry Newman
Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved.