ž 1. Analysis of the Seven Daily Services of the Church Catholic, as preserved in the Breviary.

{17} EVERY Service but Compline is commenced with privately saying the Lord's Prayer, and the Ave Mary, to which the Creed is added before Matins and Prime. In like manner, after Compline, all three are repeated. Every other Service ends with the Lord's Prayer in private, unless another Service immediately follows. Concerning the introduction of the Ave Mary, vid. supra, p. 11. This use of the Lord's prayer in private before the beginning of the Service seems to have led the compilers of King Edward's First Book to open with the Lord's Prayer, only said aloud, not in private; but a pious custom has brought in again the private prayer, as before, though without prescribing any particular form. The compilers of King Edward's Second Book prefixed to the Lord's Prayer, the Sentences, and an Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution of their own. After these follows, "O Lord, open thou our lips," &c. which stands first in the Breviary Service.

1. MATINS, or Night Service, (after One, A.M.)

Introduction.

Verse. O Lord, open Thou my lips.
Resp. And my mouth shall shew forth Thy praise.                  
(Each person to sign his lips with the Cross.)
Verse. O God, make speed to save me.
Resp. O Lord, make haste to help me.
(Each person to sign himself from the forehead to the breast.)
Glory be to the Father, &c.
As it was, &c. Amen.
(Ordinarily added) Hallelujah. (i.e. Praise ye the Lord.)

Psalm 95.—"O come let us sing," &c. with a verse called an Invitatory, "Let us worship the Lord: our Maker," divided into two parts, the whole being used before the 1st, 3rd, and 8th verse, and at the end, and again after the Gloria Patri, and the latter part after the 4th and 9th, and between the Gloria and the whole. This Invitatory varies with the season, but its general character is always preserved; e.g. in Advent, "O Come {18} let us worship: the Lord, the King to come;" or "the Lord is at hand, O come let us worship;" again in Lent, "It is not to you lost labour that ye haste to rise up early: for the Lord hath promised a crown to those who wait for Him." At Pentecost, "Hallelujah, the Spirit of the Lord hath filled the round world: O come let us worship, Hallelujah."

A Hymn follows according to the day, and terminates the Introduction; then follow Psalms and Lessons, in one or three Nocturns, according as the Service is for Weekday or Sunday.

On Sunday, Eighteen Psalms with Nine Lessons; viz.

Psalms 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, & 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.
A passage from Scripture, in three parts—(according to the time
of the Year
.)
Psalms 16, 17, 18.
A passage from some Father of the Church, in three parts.
Psalms 19, 20, 21.
A comment on some passage of the Gospel, in three parts.

On Weekdays, Twelve Psalms with Three Lessons, viz.

On Monday.
Psalms 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38.
A passage in three parts from Scripture or the Fathers.

On Tuesday.
Psalms 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52.
A passage in three parts, &c. as on Monday.

On Wednesday.
Psalms 53, 55, 56; 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 66, 68.
A passage, &c.

On Thursday.
Psalms 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80.
A passage, &c. {19}

On Friday.
Psalms 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 94, 96, 97.
A passage, &c.

On Saturday.
Psalms 98, 99, 100, or 92. (according to the day) 101, 102,
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109.
A passage, &c.

———————

Then on every day of the week follows the
Te Deum Laudamus.

This noble Hymn follows in this place with especial propriety, on Sundays and other Festivals; viz. after the reading the words of Prophets and Apostles, and the writings and histories of Saints and Martyrs, all of whom are commemorated in it. On all days it impressively winds up the Service which precedes.

———————

LAUDS;—(appended to the Matins towards the first twilight.)

        Verse. "O God, make speed, &c.
        Resp. O Lord, make haste,"
Glory be, &c.
As it was, &c. Amen. Hallelujah.

Then five Psalms, viz. on

Sunday.
Psalms 93, 100, 63 and 67.
The Song of the Three Children.
Psalms 148-150.

Monday.
Psalms 51, 5, 63. Song of Isaiah. (Is. xii.) Psalm 148.

Tuesday.
Psalms 51, 43, 63. Song of Hezekiah. (Is. xxxviii.) Psalm 148.

Wednesday.
Psalms 51, 65, 63. Song of Hannah. (1 Sam. ii. Psalm 148.) {20}

Thursday.
Psalms 51, 90, 63. Song of Moses. (Ex. xv.) Psalm 148.

Friday.
Psalms 51, 143, 63. Song of Habakkuk. (Hab. iii.) Psalm 148.

Saturday.
Psalms 51, 92, 63. Song of Moses. (Deut. xxxii.) Psalm 148.

The Service ends on all days with a Text (Capitulum), a Hymn and a Collect (Oratio), varying with the day and season; the Song of Zacharias (Benedictus) being interposed between the Hymn and Collect, and several stated Collects, invocations, and Sentences following.

2. PRIME, on the Rising of the Sun.

Verse. "O God, make speed, &c.
Resp. O Lord, make haste, &c" and the Gloria Patri, &c. as before.

A Hymn, the same every day in the year. Then four Psalms (except Saturday when there are three,) viz.

                 Psalm 54;—
Sunday.—Psalm 118, or (sometimes) 93.
Monday.—Psalm 24.
Tuesday. —Psalm 25.
Wednesday.—Psalm 26.
Thursday.—Psalm 23.
Friday.—Psalm 22.
Saturday.—Psalm is omitted.

Then, throughout the week,—

Psalm 119, v. 1-32. in two parts.

Then on Saturday only, follows the Psalm Quicumque, commonly called the Athanasian Creed. It is a far truer view of this venerable composition, to consider it a Psalm or Hymn of praise, and of concurrence in GOD'S appointments, as Psalm 118 {21} or 139, or the Te Deum, than as a formal Creed; and by using it weekly, its living character and spirit are incorporated into the Christian's devotions, and its influence on the heart, as far as may be, secured. The time, too, should be observed. The dawn of the first day of the week.

The Service concludes with a Text (Capitulum); with the Lord's Prayer, privately: a Confession of Priest to People, and in turn of People to Priest, and a corresponding Absolution: Sentences; Collect, the Third, for grace in our own Morning Service, a Lesson from the Book of Martyrs; an Invocation of St. Mary and All Saints; Sentences, with the Lord's Prayer, privately; Collect, the Second, at the end of our Communion Service; a Short Lesson; and Sentences.

3. The THIRD (Nine A.M.) 4. SIXTH (noon.) 5. NINTH
(Three P.M.)

"O God, make speed," &c. as before.

A Hymn, the same throughout the year, at the same hours respectively: then

At the Third.—Psalm 119, v. 33-80. in three parts.
At the Sixth.—Psalm 119, v. 81-128. in three parts.
At the Ninth.—Psalm 119, v. 129-176. in three parts.

Thus the whole of the 119th Psalm is gone through every day of the year.

Then a Text (Capitulum) and Sentences, with the Lord's Prayer, privately, varying with the time of the year. Then the Collect for the day or week.

6. VESPERS. (Evening.)

"O God, make speed," &c. as before; then Five Psalms, viz. on

Sunday.—Psalms 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, and 115.
Monday.—Psalms 116, in two parts, 117, 120, 121.
Tuesday.—Psalms 122, 123, 124, 125, 126. {22}
Wednesday.—Psalms 127, 128, 129, 130, 131.
Thursday.—Psalms 132, 133, 135, 136, 137.
Friday—Psalms 138, 139, 140, 141, 142.
Saturday.—Psalms 144, 145, 146, 147, in two parts.

Then on every day a Text (Capitulum), a Hymn, and the Collect, all varying with the day and season; between the Hymn and Collect always is interposed the Magnificat, sometimes with Sentences after it. The Service ends, as Lauds, with Collects and Invocations.

7. COMPLINE. (Bed-time.)

This Service is almost invariable throughout the year.

It begins with a Blessing for the ensuing night; a Short Lesson; the Confession and Absolution as at Prime; Sentences; then four Psalms, viz.

Psalms 4, 31, down to v. 6, 9, 134.

A Hymn: Text (Capitulum); Sentences; Song of Simeon (Luke ii); Sentences with the Lord's Prayer and Creed, privately; Collect for safety during the night. The Service ends with an Antiphon in praise of the Virgin, and Collect upon it.

———————

To this Sketch of the Services must be added a few words concerning the Antiphons and Benedictions which occur throughout them, but have not been noticed in their places.

The Antiphons or Anthems are sentences preceding and succeeding the Separate Psalms and Songs, and are ordinarily verses taken from the particular compositions to which they are attached. They seem to answer the purpose of calling attention to what is coming, of interpreting it, or of pointing out the particular part of it which is intended to bear on the Service of the day; in all respects answering the place of what is called by musicians a key note. They are repeated at the end, as if to fix the impression or the lesson intended.

Antiphons are introduced in other connexions, as before Collects; such are those, for instance, in the Commemorations of {23} the Blessed Virgin and the Apostles in Vespers and Lauds. Such, too, are the Antiphons to the Blessed Virgin placed at the end of Compline, to which especial attention was above directed (p. 11), on the ground of their objectionable nature. They shall be here given, in order to show clearly, as a simple inspection of them will suffice to do, the utter contrariety between the Roman system, as actually existing, and our own; which, however similar in certain respects, are in others so at variance, as to make any attempt to reconcile them together in their present state perfectly nugatory. Till Rome moves towards us, it is quite impossible that we should move towards Rome; however closely we may approximate to her in particular doctrines, principles, or views. In reading the following, it should be recollected, indeed, that Antiphons are not, strictly speaking, Prayers, but Sentences applied to the particular purpose of meditation, thanksgiving, &c.; yet the following, taken together, are quite beyond the power of any defence which might thence be available for less explicit compositions.

From Advent to the Purification.
Alma Redemptoris Mater quŠ pervia cœli
Porta manes, et stella maris, succurre cadenti,
Surgere qui curat, populo; to quŠ genuisti,
NaturÔ mirante, tuum sanctum Genitorem,
Virgo prius ac posterius, Gabrielis ab ore,
Sumens illud Ave, peccatorum miserere.
Kindly Mother of the Redeemer, who art ever of heaven
The open gate, and the star of the sea, aid a fallen people,
Which is trying to rise again; thou who didst give birth,
While Nature marvelled how, to thy Holy Creator,
Virgin both before and after, from Gabriel's mouth
Accepting the All hail, be merciful towards sinners.


From the Purification to Good Friday
.

Ave, Regina cœlorum!
Ave, Domina Angelorum!
Salve radix, salve porta!
Ex quÔ mundo lux est orta.
Gaude, Virgo gloriosa,
Super omnes speciosa;
Vale, o valde decora,
Et pro nobis Christum exora.
Hail, O Queen of the heavens
Hail, Lady of Angels
Hail, the root! hail the gate!
Whence to the world light is risen.
Rejoice, O glorious Virgin,
Beautiful above all;
Farewell, O thou most comely,
And prevail on Christ for us by thy prayer.
{24}


From Easier to the First Week complete after Pentecost
.

Regina cœli, lŠtare,
     Alleluia.
Quia quem meruisti portare, 
     Alleluia.
Resurrexit, sicut dixit,
     Alleluia.
Ora pro nobis Deum.
     Alleluia.
Rejoice, O queen of heaven,
     Hallelujah.
For He, whom for thy obedience' sake thou didst bear,
     Hallelujah.
Is risen, as he said,
     Hallelujah.
Pray thou God for us.
     Hallelujah.


From Trinity tide to Advent
.

Salve Regina, mater misericordiŠ, vita, dulcedo et spes nostra, salve. Ad te clamamus exules, filii HevŠ. Ad te suspiramus, gementes et flentes in hac lachrymarum valle. Eja ergo advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte, et Jesum, benedictum fructum ventris tui, nobis post hoc exilium ostende. O clemens, O pia, O dulcis Virgo Maria. Hail, O Queen, the mother of mercy, our life, sweetness, and hope, hail. To Thee we exiles cry out, the sons of Eve. To Thee we sigh, groaning and weeping in this valley of tears. Come then, O our Patroness, turn thou on us those merciful eyes of thine, and show to us, after this exile, Jesus the blessed fruit of thy womb. O gracious, O pitiful, O sweet Virgin Mary.

These Antiphons have already been shown to be of comparatively modern origin; which, indeed, is sufficiently clear from their composition, independently of the question of doctrine. The Absolutions and Benedictions on the other hand seem, from their doctrinal character, to come from high antiquity. Wheatly remarks, that the precise indicative Absolution, such as it occurs in our Visitation for the Sick, though altogether justifiable and edifying, did not come into use till the twelfth century; that is, about the time of the above innovations in commemorating the Blessed Virgin. Now the Absolutions and Benedictions in the Breviary happen, on the contrary, to be of a remarkably simple character; they are uniformly in the shape of petitions to ALMIGHTY GOD, and they include the minister using them, being worded in the first, not the second person. Again, in the quasi Absolution, after the stated Confession at Prime and Compline, it is to be noticed, that the People absolve the Priest, before, and in the same words in which the Priest absolves the People, as if vindicating to the body of Christians that sacramental {25} power, (whatever may be its degree,) which might have seemed inconsistent with the special stress laid by Romanism on Sacerdotal gifts. An Absolution occurs in each Nocturn between the Psalms and Lessons: a short Benediction is pronounced before the reading of each of the latter, being first asked for by the Reader.

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